### Ideas from 'What is the Source of Knowledge of Modal Truths?' by E.J. Lowe [2013], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Mind' (ed/tr -) [- ,]].

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###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 6. Definition by Essence
 16539 A definition of a circle will show what it is, and show its generating principle
 16540 Defining an ellipse by conic sections reveals necessities, but not the essence of an ellipse
 16548 An essence is what an entity is, revealed by a real definition; this is not an entity in its own right
###### 2. Reason / D. Definition / 11. Ostensive Definition
 16549 Simple things like 'red' can be given real ostensive definitions
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / c. Statue and clay
 16545 The essence of lumps and statues shows that two objects coincide but are numerically distinct
 16546 The essence of a bronze statue shows that it could be made of different bronze
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 4. Essence as Definition
 16551 Grasping an essence is just grasping a real definition
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 8. Essence as Explanatory
 16542 Explanation can't give an account of essence, because it is too multi-faceted
###### 9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 14. Knowledge of Essences
 16552 If we must know some entity to know an essence, we lack a faculty to do that
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
 16533 Logical necessities, based on laws of logic, are a proper sub-class of metaphysical necessities
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 5. Metaphysical Necessity
 16531 'Metaphysical' necessity is absolute and objective - the strongest kind of necessity
###### 10. Modality / B. Possibility / 2. Epistemic possibility
 16532 'Epistemic' necessity is better called 'certainty'
###### 10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 6. Necessity from Essence
 16543 If an essence implies p, then p is an essential truth, and hence metaphysically necessary
 16544 Metaphysical necessity is either an essential truth, or rests on essential truths
###### 10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 1. Possible Worlds / e. Against possible worlds
 16538 We could give up possible worlds if we based necessity on essences
###### 12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 2. Intuition
 16534 'Intuitions' are just unreliable 'hunches'; over centuries intuitions change enormously
###### 18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
 16535 A concept is a way of thinking of things or kinds, whether or not they exist
###### 19. Language / B. Reference / 3. Direct Reference / a. Direct reference
 16550 Direct reference doesn't seem to require that thinkers know what it is they are thinking about
###### 26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / e. Anti scientific essentialism
 16547 H2O isn't necessary, because different laws of nature might affect how O and H combine