Ideas of PG, by Theme

[British, b.1945, Creator of the database used on this website.]

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1. Philosophy / B. History of Ideas / 3. Greek-English Lexicon
Agathon: good
Aisthesis: perception, sensation, consciousness
Aitia / aition: cause, explanation
Akrasia: lack of control, weakness of will
Aletheia: truth
Anamnesis: recollection, remembrance
Ananke: necessity
Antikeimenon: object
Apatheia: unemotional
Apeiron: the unlimited, indefinite
Aphairesis: taking away, abstraction
Apodeixis: demonstration
Aporia: puzzle, question, anomaly
Arche: first principle, the basic
Arete: virtue, excellence
Chronismos: separation
Diairesis: division
Dialectic: dialectic, discussion
Dianoia: intellection [cf. Noesis]
Diaphora: difference
Dikaiosune: moral goodness, justice
Doxa: opinion, belief
Dunamis: faculty, potentiality, capacity
Eidos: form, idea
Elenchos: elenchus, interrogation
Empeiron: experience
Energeia: employment, actuality, power?
Enkrateia: control
Entelecheia: entelechy, having an end
Epagoge: induction, explanation
Episteme: knowledge, understanding
Epithumia: appetite
Ergon: function
Eristic: polemic, disputation
Eros: love
Eudaimonia: flourishing, happiness, fulfilment
Genos: type, genus
Hexis: state, habit
Horismos: definition
Hule: matter
Hupokeimenon: subject, underlying thing [cf. Tode ti]
Kalos / kalon: beauty, fineness, nobility
Kath' hauto: in virtue of itself, essentially
Kinesis: movement, process
Kosmos: order, universe
Logos: reason, account, word
Meson: the mean
Metechein: partaking, sharing
Mimesis: imitation, fine art
Morphe: form
Noesis: intellection, rational thought [cf. Dianoia]
Nomos: convention, law, custom
Nous: intuition, intellect, understanding
Orexis: desire
Ousia: substance, (primary) being, [see 'Prote ousia']
Pathos: emotion, affection, property
Phantasia: imagination
Philia: friendship
Philosophia: philosophy, love of wisdom
Phronesis: prudence, practical reason, common sense
Physis: nature
Praxis: action, activity
Prote ousia: primary being
Psuche: mind, soul, life
Sophia: wisdom
Sophrosune: moderation, self-control
Stoicheia: elements
Sullogismos: deduction, syllogism
Techne: skill, practical knowledge
Telos: purpose, end
Theoria: contemplation
Theos: god
Ti esti: what-something-is, essence
Timoria: vengeance, punishment
To ti en einai: essence, what-it-is-to-be
To ti estin: essence
Tode ti: this-such, subject of predication [cf. hupokeimenon]
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 2. Ancient Philosophy / a. Ancient chronology
570: Anaximander flourished in Miletus
563: the Buddha born in northern India
540: Lao Tzu wrote 'Tao Te Ching', the basis of Taoism
529: Pythagoras created his secretive community at Croton in Sicily
323 (roughly): Euclid wrote 'Elements', summarising all of geometry
1000 (roughly): Upanishads written (in Sanskrit); religious and philosophical texts
750 (roughly): the Book of Genesis written by Hebrew writers
586: eclipse of the sun on the coast of modern Turkey was predicted by Thales of Miletus
500: Heraclitus flourishes at Ephesus, in modern Turkey
496: Confucius travels widely, persuading rulers to be more moral
472: Empedocles persuades his city (Acragas in Sicily) to become a democracy
450 (roughly): Parmenides and Zeno visit Athens from Italy
445: Protagoras helps write laws for the new colony of Thurii
436 (roughly): Anaxagoras is tried for impiety, and expelled from Athens
427: Gorgias visited Athens as ambassador for Leontini
399: Socrates executed (with Plato absent through ill health)
387 (roughly): Plato returned to Athens, and founded the Academy
387 (roughly): Aristippus the Elder founder a hedonist school at Cyrene
367: the teenaged Aristotle came to study at the Academy
360 (roughly): Diogenes of Sinope lives in a barrel in central Athens
347: death of Plato
343: Aristotle becomes tutor to 13 year old Alexander (the Great)
335: Arisotle founded his school at the Lyceum in Athens
330 (roughly): Chuang Tzu wrote his Taoist book
322: Aristotle retired to Chalcis, and died there
307 (roughly): Epicurus founded his school at the Garden in Athens
301 (roughly): Zeno of Citium founded Stoicism at the Stoa Poikile in Athens
261: Cleanthes replaced Zeno as head of the Stoa
229 (roughly): Chrysippus replaced Cleanthes has head of the Stoa
157 (roughly): Carneades became head of the Academy
85: most philosophical activity moves to Alexandria
78: Cicero visited the stoic school on Rhodes
60 (roughly): Lucretius wrote his Latin poem on epicureanism
65: Seneca forced to commit suicide by Nero
80: the discourses of the stoic Epictetus are written down
170 (roughly): Marcus Aurelius wrote his private stoic meditations
-200 (roughly): Sextus Empiricus wrote a series of books on scepticism
263: Porphyry began to study with Plotinus in Rome
310: Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire
387: Ambrose converts Augustine to Christianity
523: Boethius imprisoned at Pavia, and begins to write
529: the emperor Justinian closes all the philosophy schools in Athens
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 3. Earlier European Philosophy / a. Earlier European chronology
622 (roughly): Mohammed writes the Koran
642: Arabs close the philosophy schools in Alexandria
910 (roughly): Al-Farabi wrote Arabic commentaries on Aristotle
1015 (roughly): Ibn Sina (Avicenna) writes a book on Aristotle
1090: Anselm publishes his proof of the existence of God
1115: Abelard is the chief logic teacher in Paris
1166: Ibn Rushd (Averroes) wrote extensive commentaries on Aristotle
1266: Aquinas began writing 'Summa Theologica'
1280: after his death, the teaching of Aquinas becomes official Dominican doctrine
1328: William of Ockham decides the Pope is a heretic, and moves to Munich
1347: the Church persecutes philosophical heresies
1470: Marsilio Ficino founds a Platonic Academy in Florence
1513: Machiavelli wrote 'The Prince'
1543: Copernicus publishes his heliocentric view of the solar system
1580: Montaigne publishes his essays
1600: Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in Rome
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 4. Later European Philosophy / a. Later European chronology
1619: Descartes's famous day of meditation inside a stove
1620: Bacon publishes 'Novum Organum'
1633: Galileo convicted of heresy by the Inquisition
1641: Descartes publishes his 'Meditations'
1650: death of Descartes, in Stockholm
1651: Hobbes publishes 'Leviathan'
1662: the Port Royal Logic is published
1665: Spinoza writes his 'Ethics'
1676: Leibniz settled as librarian to the Duke of Brunswick
1687: Newton publishes his 'Principia Mathematica'
1690: Locke publishes his 'Essay'
1697: Bayle publishes his 'Dictionary'
1713: Berkeley publishes his 'Three Dialogues'
1734: Voltaire publishes his 'Philosophical Letters'
1739: Hume publishes his 'Treatise'
1762: Rousseau publishes his 'Social Contract'
1781: Kant publishes his 'Critique of Pure Reason'
1785: Reid publishes his essays defending common sense
1798: the French Revolution
1807: Hegel publishes his 'Phenomenology of Spirit'
1818: Schopenhauer publishes his 'World as Will and Idea'
1840: Kierkegaard is writing extensively in Copenhagen
1843: Mill publishes his 'System of Logic'
1848: Marx and Engels publis the Communist Manifesto
1859: Darwin publishes his 'Origin of the Species'
1861: Mill publishes 'Utilitarianism'
1867: Marx begins publishing 'Das Kapital'
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 5. Modern Philosophy / a. Modern philosophy chronology
1885: Nietzsche completed 'Thus Spake Zarathustra'
1888: Dedekind publishes axioms for arithmetic
1890: James published 'Principles of Psychology'
1895 (roughly): Freud developed theories of the unconscious
1900: Husserl began developing Phenomenology
1903: Moore published 'Principia Ethica'
1904: Dewey became professor at Columbia University
1908: Zermelo publishes axioms for set theory
1910: Russell and Whitehead begin publishing 'Principia Mathematica'
1912: Russell meets Wittgenstein in Cambridge
1921: Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus' published
1927: Heidegger's 'Being and Time' published
1930: Frank Ramsey dies at 27
1931: Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems
1933: Tarski's theory of truth
1942: Camus published 'The Myth of Sisyphus'
1943: Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness'
1945: Merleau-Ponty's 'Phenomenology of Perception'
1947: Carnap published 'Meaning and Necessity'
1950: Quine's essay 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism'
1953: Wittgenstein's 'Philosophical Investigations'
1956: Place proposed mind-brain identity
1962: Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions'
1967: Putnam proposed functionalism of the mind
1971: Rawls's 'A Theory of Justice'
1972: Kripke publishes 'Naming and Necessity'
1975: Singer publishes 'Animal Rights'
1975: Putnam published his Twin Earth example
1986: David Lewis publishes 'On the Plurality of Worlds'
1879: Peirce taught for five years at Johns Hopkins University
1879: Frege invents predicate logic
1892: Frege's essay 'Sense and Reference'
1884: Frege publishes his 'Foundations of Arithmetic'
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 5. Linguistic Analysis
Note that "is" can assert existence, or predication, or identity, or classification
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 1. Fallacy
Fallacies are errors in reasoning, 'formal' if a clear rule is breached, and 'informal' if more general
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 3. Question Begging
Question-begging assumes the proposition which is being challenged
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 6. Fallacy of Division
What is true of a set is also true of its members
2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 7. Ad Hominem
The Ad Hominem Fallacy criticises the speaker rather than the argument
3. Truth / H. Deflationary Truth / 3. Minimalist Truth
Minimal theories of truth avoid ontological commitment to such things as 'facts' or 'reality'
5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 1. Paradox
Monty Hall Dilemma: do you abandon your preference after Monty eliminates one of the rivals?
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 1. Perceptual Realism / a. Naďve realism
If reality is just what we perceive, we would have no need for a sixth sense
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 5. A Priori Synthetic
If my team is losing 3-1, I have synthetic a priori knowledge that they need two goals for a draw
17. Mind and Body / E. Mind as Physical / 7. Anti-Physicalism / b. Multiple realisability
Maybe a frog's brain events for fear are functionally like ours, but not phenomenally
Maybe a mollusc's brain events for pain ARE of the same type (broadly) as a human's
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 4. Unfairness
Utilitarianism seems to justify the discreet murder of unhappy people
27. Natural Reality / G. Biology / 2. Life
Life is Movement, Respiration, Sensation, Nutrition, Excretion, Reproduction, Growth (MRS NERG)
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 4. Divine Contradictions
How could God know there wasn't an unknown force controlling his 'free' will?
An omniscient being couldn't know it was omniscient, as that requires information from beyond its scope of knowledge