Ideas of Johanna Oksala, by Theme

[Finnish, fl. 2013, At the University of Helsinki.]

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1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 6. Deconstruction
Post-structuralism focused on exterior determinants of thought, rather than the thinker
     Full Idea: Post-structuralism was characterised by the denial of the human being as the privileged object of philosophical analysis, focusing instead on the social, linguistic and unconscious determinants of thought.
     From: Johanna Oksala (How to Read Foucault [2007], Intro)
     A reaction: I'm new to this, and so far this sounds the same as structralism, so I'll have to keep going. I presume it is the same as the rejection of the author when interpreting literature (as in Barthes?). Structuralism was 'non-historical'.
24. Political Theory / A. Basis of a State / 1. A People / c. A unified people
World government needs a shared global identity
     Full Idea: Critics have argued that a global 'demos' would require a shared global identity.
     From: Johanna Oksala (Political Philosophy: all that matters [2013], Ch.9 'Epi')
     A reaction: The great divisions are religion and language. The great unifiers are sport, arts and entertainment, plus basic human needs like food, health and housing. The reply is that there cannot be identity without differences, so global democracy is out.
24. Political Theory / A. Basis of a State / 4. Original Position / b. Veil of ignorance
The principles Rawls arrives at do not just conform to benevolence, but also result from choices
     Full Idea: The advantage of Rawls's method is that the principles the individual chooses are not only fair according to some abstract principle of benevolence, but also the result of rational choice.
     From: Johanna Oksala (Political Philosophy: all that matters [2013], Ch.5)
     A reaction: That is a very nice way of putting the beauty of Rawls's idea. In modern political philosophy you hear far more criticisms of Rawls than praise. If a philosopher is criticised a lot, it is probably because they have stated their views clearly.
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 2. Anarchism
Anarchists prefer local and communal government
     Full Idea: Anarchists advocate forms of governance such as communes and associations that are as local and close to the direct control of the people as possible.
     From: Johanna Oksala (Political Philosophy: all that matters [2013], Ch.8)
     A reaction: Which might explain why recent conservative governments have steadily eliminated local government in Britain.
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 4. Social Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism neglects responsibility, duties and rights
     Full Idea: A focus solely on utility excludes considerations of personal responsibility and duty, as well as considerations of the basic rights of individuals.
     From: Johanna Oksala (Political Philosophy: all that matters [2013], Ch.7)
     A reaction: [He cites these as the common modern criticisms] The defence is to explain the value of each of these in utilitarian terms. There is a general problem (conceded by Mill) of motivation in utilitarianism. There's not much in it for me!