Ideas of Martin Kusch, by Theme

[British, fl. 2002, Professor of Philosophy and Sociology of Science at the University of Cambridge.]

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3. Truth / C. Correspondence Truth / 1. Correspondence Truth
Correspondence could be with other beliefs, rather than external facts
3. Truth / F. Semantic Truth / 1. Tarski's Truth / a. Tarski's truth definition
Tarskians distinguish truth from falsehood by relations between members of sets
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / a. Beliefs
We can have knowledge without belief, if others credit us with knowledge
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 4. Solipsism
Methodological Solipsism assumes all ideas could be derived from one mind
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / f. Foundationalism critique
Foundations seem utterly private, even from oneself at a later time
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / a. Coherence as justification
Testimony is reliable if it coheres with evidence for a belief, and with other beliefs
The coherentist restricts the space of reasons to the realm of beliefs
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / c. Coherentism critique
Individualistic coherentism lacks access to all of my beliefs, or critical judgement of my assessment
Individual coherentism cannot generate the necessary normativity
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 2. Causal Justification
Cultures decide causal routes, and they can be critically assessed
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 3. Reliabilism / a. Reliable knowledge
Process reliabilism has been called 'virtue epistemology', resting on perception, memory, reason
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 6. Contextual Justification / a. Contextualism
Justification depends on the audience and one's social role
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 7. Testimony
Vindicating testimony is an expression of individualism
Testimony does not just transmit knowledge between individuals - it actually generates knowledge
Some want to reduce testimony to foundations of perceptions, memories and inferences
Testimony won't reduce to perception, if perception depends on social concepts and categories
A foundation is what is intelligible, hence from a rational source, and tending towards truth
Testimony is an area in which epistemology meets ethics
Powerless people are assumed to be unreliable, even about their own lives
13. Knowledge Criteria / C. External Justification / 8. Social Justification
Communitarian Epistemology says 'knowledge' is a social status granted to groups of people
Private justification is justification to imagined other people
Myths about lonely genius are based on epistemological individualism
16. Persons / E. Rejecting the Self / 2. Self as Social Construct
To be considered 'an individual' is performed by a society
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 1. Concepts / a. Nature of concepts
Our experience may be conceptual, but surely not the world itself?
19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
Often socialising people is the only way to persuade them
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 7. Communitarianism / a. Communitarianism
Communitarianism in epistemology sees the community as the primary knower
26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 7. Critique of Kinds
Natural kinds are social institutions
28. God / A. Divine Nature / 4. Divine Contradictions
Omniscience is incoherent, since knowledge is a social concept