Ideas of Michael Frede, by Theme

[German, 1940 - 2007, Professor at Princeton, and then at Oxford.]

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1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 2. Ancient Philosophy / e. Late classical philosophy
In late antiquity nearly all philosophers were monotheists
In the third century Stoicism died out, replaced by Platonism, with Aristotelian ethics
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 3. Earlier European Philosophy / b. Early medieval philosophy
Earlier views of Aristotle were dominated by 'Categories'
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
The early philosophers thought that reason has its own needs and desires
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 9. Ship of Theseus
Insurance on the original ship would hardly be paid out if the plank version was wrecked!
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 2. Sources of Free Will
The Stoics needed free will, to allow human choices in a divinely providential cosmos
The idea of free will achieved universal acceptance because of Christianity
For Christians man has free will by creation in God's image (as in Genesis)
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
There is no will for Plato or Aristotle, because actions come directly from perception of what is good
29. Religion / A. Polytheistic Religion / 4. Dualist Religion
The Gnostic demiurge (creator) is deluded, and doesn't care about us