Ideas of Karl Marx, by Theme

[German, 1818 - 1883, Born at Trier. Worked in the British Museum Reading Room. Died in London.]

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1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 5. Aims of Philosophy / a. Philosophy as worldly
Philosophers have interpreted the world, but the point is to change it
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 5. Objectivity
Whether human thinking can be 'true' must be decided in practice, not theory
16. Persons / E. Rejecting the Self / 2. Self as Social Construct
The authentic self exists at the level of class, rather than the individual [Dunt]
22. Metaethics / A. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
The human essence is not found in individuals but in social relations
22. Metaethics / A. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
Armies and businesses create moralities in which their activity can do no wrong [Weil]
24. Political Theory / B. Nature of a State / 2. State Legitimacy / d. General will
The real will of the cooperative will replace the 'will of the people'
24. Political Theory / C. Ruling a State / 4. Changing the State / c. Revolution
The middle class gain freedom through property, but workers can only free all of humanity [Singer]
Theory is as much a part of a revolution as material force is
In moving from capitalism to communism a revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat is needed
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 6. Liberalism / d. Liberal freedom
Liberal freedom is the right to be separate, and ignores the union of man with man
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 6. Liberalism / g. Liberalism critique
Liberals want the right to be separate, rather than for people to be united
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 7. Communitarianism / a. Communitarianism
Early Marx anticipates communitarian objections to liberalism [Oksala]
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 9. Communism
Man is dominated by money, which is the essence of his alienation
By saying the material dialectic of history aspires to the best, Marx agreed with capitalism [Weil]
False consciousness results from concealment by the superstructure [Singer]
Marx says force is everything, and that the weak will become strong, while remaining the weak [Weil]
Marx rejected equal rights because they never actually treat people as equals [Kymlicka]
Even decently paid workers still have their produce bought with money stolen from them
Must production determine superstructure, or could it be the other way round? [Singer]
Freedom only comes when labour is no longer necessary
Freedom is making the state subordinate to its society
From each according to his ability, to each according to his need
People who only have their labour power are the slaves of those permitting them to work
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 11. Capitalism
The handmill gives feudalism, the steam mill capitalism
Capitalism changes the world, by socialising the idea of a commodity [Bowie]
The essence of capitalism is the subordination of people to things [Weil]
Marx thought capitalism was partly liberating, and could make labour and ownership more humane [Bowie]
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 2. Freedom of belief
Bourgeois 'freedom of conscience' just tolerates all sorts of religious intolerance
25. Social Practice / C. Rights / 1. Basis of Rights
Marxists say liberal rights are confrontational, and liberal equality is a sham [Wolff,J]
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 1. Religious Commitment / a. Religious Belief
Religion is the opium of the people, and real happiness requires its abolition
Religious feeling is social in origin