Ideas of K Marx / F Engels, by Theme

[German, fl. 1848, Founders of the communist movement]

green numbers give full details    |    back to list of philosophers    |     expand these ideas
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
Philosophy is no more than abstractions concerning observations of human historical development
7. Existence / D. Theories of Reality / 6. Physicalism
Philosophical problems are resolved into empirical facts
13. Knowledge Criteria / E. Relativism / 4. Cultural relativism
For the proletariate, law, morality and religion are just expressions of bourgeois interests
15. Nature of Minds / B. Features of Minds / 1. Consciousness / a. Consciousness
'Society determines consciousness' is contradictory; society only exists in minds [Weil]
Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 3. Meaning as Speaker's Intention
Language co-exists with consciousness, and makes it social
22. Metaethics / A. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
The nature of an individual coincides with what they produce and how they produce it
Consciousness is a social product
22. Metaethics / A. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention
Bourgeois interests create our morality, law and religion
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
When aristocracy or the bourgeoisie dominate, certain values dominate with them
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
Young Hegelians proposed changing our present consciousness for liberating critical consciousness
24. Political Theory / A. Basis of a State / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Producing their own subsistence distinguishes men from animals
Men distinguish themselves from animals when they begin to produce their means of subsistence
Individuals are mutually hostile unless they group together in competition with other groups
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 7. Communitarianism / a. Communitarianism
Only in community are people able to cultivate their gifts, and therefore be free
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 9. Communism
Young Hegelians think consciousness is chains for men, where old Hegelians think it the bond of society
In communist society we are not trapped in one activity, but can act freely
If the common interest imposes on the individual, his actions become alienated and enslaving
The class controlling material production also controls mental production
The revolutionary class is opposed to 'class', and represents all of society
To assert themselves as individuals, the proletarians must overthrow the State
Modern governments are just bourgeois management committees
Communism aims to abolish not all property, but bourgeois property
Many of the bourgeois rights grievances are a form of self-defence
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 1. Slavery
Slavery cannot be abolished without the steam-engine
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 4. Free market
Communism abolishes private property and dissolves the powerful world market
25. Social Practice / A. Freedoms / 5. Freedom of lifestyle
The free development of each should be the condition for the free development of all
25. Social Practice / C. Rights / 4. Property rights
The law says private property is the result of the general will
25. Social Practice / E. Policies / 5. Education / b. Education principles
Communists want to rescue education from the ruling class
25. Social Practice / E. Policies / 5. Education / d. Study of history
Human history must always be studied in relation to industry and exchange
Most historians are trapped in the illusions of their own epoch
The history of all existing society is the history of class struggles