Ideas of Kongzi (Confucius), by Theme

[Chinese, c.551 - 479 BCE, Born and died at Shantung, China.]

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19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
People who control others with fluent language often end up being hated
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / h. Against ethics
All men prefer outward appearance to true excellence
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / e. Human nature
Humans are similar, but social conventions drive us apart (sages and idiots being the exceptions)
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
Do not do to others what you would not desire yourself
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
Excess and deficiency are equally at fault
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
The virtues of the best people are humility, maganimity, sincerity, diligence, and graciousness
24. Political Theory / C. Ruling a State / 2. Leaders / d. Elites
Men of the highest calibre avoid political life completely
24. Political Theory / D. Ideologies / 3. Conservatism
Confucianism assumes that all good developments have happened, and there is only one Way [Norden]