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Ideas of Gregory L. Murphy, by Text

[American, fl. 2004, Professor of Psychology at New York University.]

2004 The Big Book of Concepts
Ch. 2 p.12 The classical definitional approach cannot distinguish typical and atypical category members
Ch. 2 p.26 Classical concepts follow classical logic, but concepts in real life don't work that way
Ch. 2 p.27 Classical concepts are transitive hierarchies, but actual categories may be intransitive
Ch. 2 p.28 The classical core is meant to be the real concept, but actually seems unimportant
Ch. 2 p.38 The theoretical and practical definitions for the classical view are very hard to find
Ch. 2 p.40 The most popular theories of concepts are based on prototypes or exemplars
Ch. 3 p.42 There is no 'ideal' bird or dog, and prototypes give no information about variability
Ch. 3 p.42 Prototypes are unified representations of the entire category (rather than of members)
Ch. 3 p.49 The exemplar view of concepts says 'dogs' is the set of dogs I remember
Ch. 3 p.60 We do not learn concepts in isolation, but as an integrated part of broader knowledge
Ch. 6 p.148 Concepts with familiar contents are easier to learn
Ch. 6 p.168 Some knowledge is involved in instant use of categories, other knowledge in explanations
Ch. 6 p.173 People categorise things consistent with their knowledge, even rejecting some good evidence
Ch. 6 p.181 Induction is said to just compare properties of categories, but the type of property also matters
Ch. 6 p.183 The prototype theory uses observed features, but can't include their construction
Ch.13 p.479 Research shows perceptual discrimination is sharper at category boundaries
Ch.13 p.483 The main theories of concepts are exemplar, prototype and knowledge
Ch.13 p.485 Children using knowing and essentialist categories doesn't fit the exemplar view
Ch.13 p.485 Exemplar theory struggles with hierarchical classification and with induction
Ch.13 p.487 Conceptual combination must be compositional, and can't be built up from exemplars
Ch.13 p.487 The prototype theory handles hierarchical categories and combinations of concepts well
Ch.13 p.488 Prototypes theory of concepts is best, as a full description with weighted typical features
Ch.13 p.492 Learning concepts is forming prototypes with a knowledge structure
Ch.13 p.496 The concept of birds from exemplars must also be used in inductions about birds