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Ideas of Isaac Newton, by Text

[British, fl. 1687, Born in Lincolnshire. At Trinity College, Cambridge. Published theory of gravity in 1687.]

1669 Universal Arithmetick
p.407 A number is not a multitude, but a unified ratio between quantities
1687 Principia Mathematica
p.8 Newton needs intervals of time, to define velocity and acceleration [Le Poidevin]
p.12 Newton's four fundamentals are: space, time, matter and force [Russell]
p.26 Newton reclassified vertical motion as violent, and unconstrained horizontal motion as natural [Harré]
p.38 Mass is central to matter [Hart,WD]
p.53 Newton thought his laws of motion needed absolute time [Bardon]
p.54 Newtonian mechanics does not distinguish negative from positive values of time [Coveney/Highfield]
p.57 Inertia rejects the Aristotelian idea of things having natural states, to which they return [Alexander,P]
p.82 If you changed one of Newton's concepts you would destroy his whole system [Heisenberg]
p.83 Newton's idea of force acting over a long distance was very strange [Heisenberg]
p.106 You have discovered that elliptical orbits result just from gravitation and planetary movement [Leibniz]
p.125 Newton showed that falling to earth and orbiting the sun are essentially the same [Ellis]
p.149 Newtonian causation is changes of motion resulting from collisions [Baron/Miller]
p.232 Newton developed a kinematic approach to geometry [Kitcher]
p.237 Newton introduced forces other than by contact [Papineau]
p.238 Newton's laws cover the effects of forces, but not their causes [Papineau]
p.239 Newton's Third Law implies the conservation of momentum [Papineau]
p.239 Early Newtonians could not formulate conservation of energy, having no concept of potential energy [Papineau]
p.426 Newton's forces were accused of being the scholastics' real qualities [Pasnau]
Pref p.41 I suspect that each particle of bodies has attractive or repelling forces
Preface p.41 We have given up substantial forms, and now aim for mathematical laws
1.1.11 Sch p.86 I am studying the quantities and mathematics of forces, not their species or qualities
1.II.Schol p.86 An attraction of a body is the sum of the forces of their particles
Axioms p.70 1: Bodies rest, or move in straight lines, unless acted on by forces
Axioms p.71 3: All actions of bodies have an equal and opposite reaction
Axioms p.71 2: Change of motion is proportional to the force
Bk 3 Gen Schol p.90 If a perfect being does not rule the cosmos, it is not God
Bk 3 Gen Schol p.90 The elegance of the solar system requires a powerful intellect as designer
Bk 3 Gen Schol p.92 From the phenomena, I can't deduce the reason for the properties of gravity
Bk 3 Gen Schol p.92 Science deduces propositions from phenomena, and generalises them by induction
Bk 3 Gen Schol p.93 Particles mutually attract, and cohere at short distances
Bk 3 Rule 1 p.87 We should admit only enough causes to explain a phenomenon, and no more
Bk 3 Rule 2 p.87 Natural effects of the same kind should be assumed to have the same causes
Bk 3 Rule 3 p.88 I am not saying gravity is essential to bodies
Def 8 Schol p.64 Absolute space is independent, homogeneous and immovable
Def 8 Schol p.64 Time exists independently, and flows uniformly
Def 8 Schol p.65 The place of a thing is the sum of the places of its parts
Def 8 Schol p.66 Philosophy must abstract from the senses
Def 8 Schol p.66 If there is no uniform motion, we cannot exactly measure time
I:Schol after defs p.145 Absolute time, from its own nature, flows equably, without relation to anything external
Lemma 1 p.238 Quantities and ratios which continually converge will eventually become equal
Pref 1st ed p.173 The aim is to discover forces from motions, and use forces to demonstrate other phenomena
1692 Letters to Bentley
1692.12.10 p.94 The principles of my treatise are designed to fit with a belief in God
1692.12.10 p.95 The motions of the planets could only derive from an intelligent agent
1693.01.17 p.99 Not all infinites are equal
1693.01.17 p.100 I do not pretend to know the cause of gravity
1693.02.25 p.102 That gravity should be innate and essential to matter is absurd
1693.02.25 p.103 We can talk of 'innumerable number', about the infinite points on a line
1693 Letters to Leibniz 1
1693.10.16 p.109 I won't object if someone shows that gravity consistently arises from the action of matter
1721 Queries to the 'Opticks'
q 31 p.544 Principles of things are not hidden features of forms, but the laws by which they were formed