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Ideas of Carneades, by Text

[Greek, 214 - 129 BCE, Born at Cyrene, in North Africa. Head of the New Academy in Athens. Wrote nothing, but Clitomachus preserved his arguments.]

174BCE fragments/reports
p.10 Carneades said that after a shipwreck a wise man would seize the only plank by force [Tuck]
p.102 Future events are true if one day we will say 'this event is happening now'
p.103 Carneades distinguished logical from causal necessity, when talking of future events [Long]
p.103 Some actions are within our power; determinism needs prior causes for everything - so it is false [Cicero]
p.104 People change laws for advantage; either there is no justice, or it is a form of self-injury [Lactantius]
p.221 Voluntary motion is intrinsically within our power, and this power is its cause [Cicero]
p.223 We say future things are true that will possess actuality at some following time [Cicero]
p.229 Even Apollo can only foretell the future when it is naturally necessary [Cicero]
p.505 Carneades' pinnacles of philosophy are the basis of knowledge (the criterion of truth) and the end of appetite (good) [Cicero]
fr 41-42 p.91 Carneades denied the transitivity of identity [Chisholm]