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15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 7. Animal Minds

[whether animals have consciousness and reason]

12 ideas
Animals have a share of reason [Democritus, by Porphyry]
Dogs show reason in decisions made by elimination [Chrysippus, by Sext.Empiricus]
Little reason is needed to speak, so animals have no reason at all [Descartes]
Animals are often observed to be wiser than people [Spinoza]
Unlike humans, animals cannot entertain general ideas [Locke]
Animals are semi-rational because they connect facts, but they don't see causes [Leibniz]
Animal thought is a shadow of reasoning, connecting sequences of images by imagination [Leibniz]
It seems probable that animals have souls, but not consciousness [Leibniz]
If animals have ideas, and are not machines, they must have some reason [Berkeley]
We may think animals reason very little, but they hardly ever make mistakes! [Peirce]
Dogs' curiosity only concerns what will happen next [James]
No one knows if animals are conscious [Carter,R]