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14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / f. Necessity in explanations

[explanations as revealing necessities in events]

5 ideas
To understand a phenomenon, we must understand why it is necessary, not merely contingent [Spinoza, by Cottingham]
Essentialists don't infer from some to all, but from essences to necessary behaviour [Ellis]
A good explanation is supposed to show that the event had to happen [Lewis]
An explanation shows why it was necessary that the effect occurred [Lipton]
Mathematics can show why some surprising events have to occur [Colyvan]