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12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism

[reason as ultimate basis of all knowledge]

42 ideas
Senses are no use if the soul is corrupt [Heraclitus]
Only reason can prove the truth of facts [Parmenides]
Obscure knowledge belongs to the five senses, and genuine knowledge is the other type [Democritus]
All evidence comes from senses, so they are indispensable to the mind [Democritus]
True knowledge is of the reality behind sense experience [Plato]
If theory and practice conflict, the best part of the mind accepts theory, so the other part is of lower grade [Plato]
A soul without understanding is ugly [Plato]
With what physical faculty do we perceive pairs of opposed abstract qualities? [Plato]
Thought must grasp being itself before truth becomes possible [Plato]
You might mistake eleven for twelve in your senses, but not in your mind [Plato]
Only bird-brained people think astronomy is entirely a matter of evidence [Plato]
We may think when we wish, but not perceive, because universals are within the mind [Aristotle]
Aristotle is a rationalist, but reason is slowly acquired through perception and experience [Aristotle, by Frede,M]
Some say motion is perceived by sense, but others say it is by intellect [Sext.Empiricus]
Our minds grasp reality by direct illumination (rather than abstraction from experience) [Augustine, by Matthews]
Sensation prepares the way for intellectual knowledge, which needs the virtues of reason [Aquinas]
Understanding, rather than imagination or senses, gives knowledge [Descartes]
The wax is not perceived by the senses, but by the mind alone [Descartes]
We don't 'see' men in heavy clothes, we judge them to be men [Descartes]
Dogs can make the same judgements as us about variable things [Gassendi on Descartes]
We perceive objects by intellect, not by senses or imagination [Descartes]
The first principles of truth are not rational, but are known by the heart [Pascal]
The eyes of the mind are proofs [Spinoza]
We all expect the sun to rise tomorrow by experience, but astronomers expect it by reason [Leibniz]
The senses are confused, and necessities come from distinct intellectual ideas [Leibniz]
You may experience a universal truth, but only reason can tell you that it is always true [Leibniz]
We only believe in sensible things when reason helps the senses [Leibniz]
We cannot represent objects unless we combine concepts with intuitions [Kant]
Experiences tests reason, and reason tests experience [Novalis]
Sense perception is secondary and dependent, while thought is independent and primitive [Hegel]
Empirical truths are particular, so general truths need an a priori input of generality [Russell]
The main claim of rationalism is that thought is an independent source of knowledge [Ayer]
The notion of substance lies at the heart of rationalist metaphysics [Cottingham]
In reducing arithmetic to self-evident logic, logicism is in sympathy with rationalism [Sosa]
Rationalism can be based on an evolved computational brain with innate structure [Fodor]
Moderate rationalists believe in fallible a priori justification [Bonjour]
Our rules of thought can only be judged by pure rational insight [Bonjour]
Virtually all rationalists assert that we can have knowledge of synthetic a priori truths [Audi,R]
The principles of justification have to be a priori [Audi,R]
Rationalism tries to apply mathematical methodology to all of knowledge [Shapiro]
Empiricists say rationalists mistake imaginative powers for modal insights [Mares]
My view is 'circumspect rationalism' - that only our intellect can comprehend the world [Fogelin]