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9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / b. Sums of parts

[the concept of parts treated as one concept]

22 ideas
A 'whole' (rather than a mere 'sum') requires an internal order which distinguishes it [Aristotle]
If a syllable is more than its elements, is the extra bit also an element? [Aristotle]
A body is always the same, whether the parts are together or dispersed [Hobbes]
The place of a thing is the sum of the places of its parts [Newton]
If x is ever part of y, then y is necessarily such that x is part of y at any time that y exists [Chisholm, by Simons]
In mereology no two things consist of the same atoms [Lewis]
Trout-turkeys exist, despite lacking cohesion, natural joints and united causal power [Lewis]
Given cats, a fusion of cats adds nothing further to reality [Lewis]
The one has different truths from the many; it is one rather than many, one rather than six [Lewis]
A gerrymandered mereological sum can be a mess, but still have natural joints [Lewis]
An 'aggregative' sum is spread in time, and exists whenever a component exists [Fine,K]
An 'compound' sum is not spread in time, and only exists when all the components exists [Fine,K]
If something is 'more than' the sum of its parts, is the extra thing another part, or not? [Harte,V]
What exactly is a 'sum', and what exactly is 'composition'? [Harte,V]
The problem with the term 'sum' is that it is singular [Harte,V]
Classical mereology says there are 'sums', for whose existence there is no other evidence [Simons]
'Mereological extensionality' says objects with the same parts are identical [Simons]
If there are c atoms, this gives 2^c - 1 individuals, so there can't be just 2 or 12 individuals [Simons]
Sums are more plausible for pluralities and masses than they are for individuals [Simons]
Sums of things in different categories are found within philosophy. [Simons]
Collections have fixed members, but fusions can be carved in innumerable ways [Potter]
Absolutely unrestricted qualitative composition would allow things with incompatible properties [Paul,LA]