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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 5. Essence as Kind

[essence as belonging to a particular natural kind]

27 ideas
The Aristotelian view is that the essential properties are those that sort an object [Aristotle, by Marcus (Barcan)]
Essence is something in common between the natures which sort things into categories [Aquinas]
Only natural kinds and their members have real essences [Suárez, by Cover/O'Leary-Hawthorne]
Particulars contain universal things [Hobbes]
The less rational view of essences is that they are moulds for kinds of natural thing [Locke]
Even real essence depends on a sort, since it is sorts which have the properties [Locke]
If every sort has its real essence, one horse, being many sorts, will have many essences [Locke]
The sense of anything contingent has a purely apprehensible essence or Eidos [Husserl]
Essence is expressed by grammar [Wittgenstein]
Putnam bases essences on 'same kind', but same kinds may not share properties [Mackie,P on Putnam]
A real essence is a kind's distinctive properties [Ellis]
Atomic number 79 is part of the nature of the gold we know [Kripke]
Sortals basically apply to individuals [Ayers]
Kind essences are the categorical bases of a thing's causal powers [Bhaskar, by Chakravartty]
A sortal essence is a property which once possessed always possessed [Brody, by Mackie,P]
Maybe essential properties are those which determine a natural kind? [Brody]
Natural kinds are well suited to be the sortals which fix substances [Wiggins]
Essential properties depend on a category, and perhaps also on particular facts [Forbes,G]
Essentialism says categories have a true hidden nature which gives an object its identity [Gelman]
Sortals are needed for determining essence - the thing must be categorised first [Gelman]
Kind (unlike individual) essentialism assumes preexisting natural categories [Gelman]
Objects have their essential properties because of the kind of objects they are [Simons]
Essential kinds may be too specific to provide ontological categories [Westerhoff]
Unlike Hesperus=Phosophorus, water=H2O needs further premisses before it is necessary [Mackie,P]
Why are any sortals essential, and why are only some of them essential? [Mackie,P]
A kind essence is the necessary and sufficient properties for membership of a class [Chakravartty]
'Sortal essentialism' says being a particular kind is what is essential [Rami]