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1051 1. Philosophy
A. Wisdom
37 1. Nature of Wisdom
32 2. Wise People
16 3. Wisdom Deflated
B. History of Ideas
11 1. History of Ideas
7 2. Ancient Thought
77 3. Greek-English Lexicon
7 4. Early European Thought
13 5. Later European Thought
2 6. Twentieth Century Thought
C. History of Philosophy
8 1. History of Philosophy
42 2. Ancient Philosophy a. Ancient chronology
7 b. Pre-Socratic philosophy
6 c. Classical philosophy
2 e. Late classical philosophy
16 3. Earlier European Philosophy a. Earlier European chronology
3 b. Early medieval philosophy
3 c. Later medieval philosophy
3 d. Renaissance philosophy
27 4. Later European Philosophy a. Later European chronology
6 b. Seventeenth century philosophy
10 c. Eighteenth century philosophy
7 d. Nineteenth century philosophy
33 5. Modern Philosophy a. Modern philosophy chronology
2 b. Modern philosophy beginnings
2 c. Modern philosophy mid-period
1 d. Contemporary philosophy
D. Nature of Philosophy
32 1. Philosophy
20 2. Invocation to Philosophy
32 3. Philosophy Defined
6 4. Divisions of Philosophy
32 5. Aims of Philosophy a. Philosophy as worldly
12 b. Philosophy as transcendent
7 c. Philosophy as generalisation
12 d. Philosophy as puzzles
18 e. Philosophy as reason
2 f. Philosophy as healing
11 6. Hopes for Philosophy
48 7. Despair over Philosophy
15 8. Humour
E. Nature of Metaphysics
28 1. Nature of Metaphysics
18 2. Possibility of Metaphysics
36 3. Metaphysical Systems
25 4. Metaphysics as Science
20 5. Metaphysics beyond Science
24 6. Metaphysics as Conceptual
14 7. Against Metaphysics
F. Analytic Philosophy
17 1. Nature of Analysis
10 2. Analysis by Division
8 3. Analysis of Preconditions
28 4. Conceptual Analysis
38 5. Linguistic Analysis
13 6. Logical Analysis
19 7. Limitations of Analysis
G. Scientific Philosophy
12 1. Aims of Science
8 2. Positivism
30 3. Scientism
H. Continental Philosophy
19 1. Continental Philosophy
23 2. Phenomenology
15 3. Hermeneutics
5 4. Linguistic Structuralism
3 5. Critical Theory
11 6. Deconstruction

623 2. Reason
A. Nature of Reason
34 1. On Reason
20 2. Logos
13 3. Pure Reason
27 4. Aims of Reason
38 5. Objectivity
24 6. Coherence
17 7. Status of Reason
9 8. Naturalising Reason
28 9. Limits of Reason
B. Laws of Thought
9 1. Laws of Thought
23 2. Sufficient Reason
22 3. Non-Contradiction
9 4. Contraries
5 5. Opposites
27 6. Ockham's Razor
C. Styles of Reason
37 1. Dialectic
8 2. Elenchus
6 3. Eristic
D. Definition
19 1. Definitions
19 2. Aims of Definition
11 3. Types of Definition
25 4. Real Definition
23 5. Genus and Differentia
14 6. Definition by Essence
14 7. Contextual Definition
9 8. Impredicative Definition
2 9. Recursive Definition
4 10. Stipulative Definition
6 11. Ostensive Definition
7 12. Paraphrase
11 13. Against Definition
E. Argument
9 1. Argument
5 2. Transcendental Argument
8 3. Analogy
1 4. Open Question
1 5. Reductio ad Absurdum
8 6. Conclusive Proof
4 7. Thought Experiments
F. Fallacies
8 1. Fallacy
4 2. Infinite Regress
3 3. Question Begging
8 4. Circularity
5 5. Fallacy of Composition
1 6. Fallacy of Division
5 7. Ad Hominem
11 8. Category Mistake a. Category mistakes
5 b. Category mistake as syntactic
11 c. Category mistake as semantic
5 d. Category mistake as pragmatic
1 e. Category mistake as ontological

626 3. Truth
A. Truth Problems
31 1. Truth
29 2. Defining Truth
36 3. Value of Truth
8 4. Uses of Truth
25 5. Truth Bearers
8 6. Verisimilitude
7 7. Falsehood
15 8. Subjective Truth
11 9. Rejecting Truth
B. Truthmakers
8 1. For Truthmakers
11 2. Truthmaker Relation
9 3. Truthmaker Maximalism
11 4. Truthmaker Necessitarianism
21 5. What Makes Truths a. What makes truths
8 b. Objects make truths
5 c. States of affairs make truths
7 d. Being makes truths
10 6. Making Negative Truths
10 7. Making Modal Truths
3 8. Making General Truths
6 9. Making Past Truths
5 10. Making Future Truths
11 11. Truthmaking and Correspondence
15 12. Rejecting Truthmakers
C. Correspondence Truth
35 1. Correspondence Truth
13 2. Correspondence to Facts
28 3. Correspondence Truth critique
D. Coherence Truth
23 1. Coherence Truth
8 2. Coherence Truth Critique
E. Pragmatic Truth
24 1. Pragmatic Truth
F. Semantic Truth
27 1. Tarski's Truth a. Tarski's truth definition
18 b. Satisfaction and truth
9 c. Meta-language for truth
35 2. Semantic Truth
G. Axiomatic Truth
35 1. Axiomatic Truth
3 2. FS Truth Axioms
6 3. KF Truth Axioms
H. Deflationary Truth
13 1. Redundant Truth
32 2. Deflationary Truth
7 3. Minimalist Truth

784 4. Formal Logic
A. Syllogistic Logic
15 1. Aristotelian Logic
14 2. Syllogistic Logic
5 3. Term Logic
B. Propositional Logic PL
12 1. Propositional Logic
10 2. Tools of Propositional Logic a. Symbols of PL
16 b. Terminology of PL
14 c. Derivation rules of PL
18 d. Basic theorems of PL
17 e. Axioms of PL
9 3. Truth Tables
2 4. Soundness of PL
1 5. Completeness of PL
C. Predicate Calculus PC
3 1. Predicate Calculus PC
4 2. Tools of Predicate Calculus a. Symbols of PC
1 b. Terminology of PC
6 c. Derivations rules of PC
4 d. Universal quantifier ∀
4 e. Existential quantifier ∃
1 3. Completeness of PC
D. Modal Logic ML
18 1. Modal Logic
4 2. Tools of Modal Logic a. Symbols of ML
6 b. Terminology of ML
15 c. Derivation rules of ML
6 3. Modal Logic Systems a. Systems of modal logic
2 b. System K
6 c. System D
4 d. System T
1 e. System K4
5 f. System B
7 g. System S4
18 h. System S5
11 4. Alethic Modal Logic
3 5. Epistemic Logic
4 6. Temporal Logic
25 7. Barcan Formula
E. Nonclassical Logics
2 1. Nonclassical Logics
15 2. Intuitionist Logic
7 3. Many-Valued Logic
4 4. Fuzzy Logic
8 5. Relevant Logic
8 6. Free Logic
5 7. Paraconsistency
3 8. Intensional Logic
1 9. Awareness Logic
1 10. Justification Logics
1 11. Dynamic Logics
6 12. Non-Monotonic Logic
F. Set Theory ST
30 1. Set Theory
19 2. Mechanics of Set Theory a. Symbols of ST
40 b. Terminology of ST
4 c. Basic theorems of ST
4 3. Types of Set a. Types of set
30 b. Empty (Null) Set
12 c. Unit (Singleton) Sets
10 d. Infinite Sets
7 e. Equivalence classes
33 4. Axioms for Sets a. Axioms for sets
9 b. Axiom of Extensionality I
5 c. Axiom of Pairing II
3 d. Axiom of Unions III
1 e. Axiom of the Empty Set IV
13 f. Axiom of Infinity V
5 g. Axiom of Powers VI
5 h. Axiom of Replacement VII
6 i. Axiom of Foundation VIII
34 j. Axiom of Choice IX
2 k. Axiom of Existence
2 l. Axiom of Specification
3 m. Axiom of Separation
3 n. Axiom of Comprehension
6 o. Axiom of Constructibility V = L
10 p. Axiom of Reducibility
8 5. Conceptions of Set a. Sets as existing
1 b. Combinatorial sets
6 c. Logical sets
9 d. Na´ve logical sets
15 e. Iterative sets
8 f. Limitation of Size
10 6. Ordering in Sets
10 7. Natural Sets
23 8. Critique of Set Theory
G. Formal Mereology
23 1. Mereology
11 2. Terminology of Mereology
9 3. Axioms of Mereology
3 4. Groups

1242 5. Theory of Logic
A. Overview of Logic
34 1. Overview of Logic
15 2. History of Logic
23 3. Value of Logic
18 4. Pure Logic
23 5. First-Order Logic
27 6. Classical Logic
33 7. Second-Order Logic
8 8. Logic of Mathematics
2 9. Philosophical Logic
B. Logical Consequence
28 1. Logical Consequence
6 2. Types of Consequence
7 3. Deductive Consequence |-
16 4. Semantic Consequence |=
9 5. Modus Ponens
2 6. Entailment
5 7. Strict Implication
7 8. Material Implication
C. Ontology of Logic
22 1. Ontology of Logic
5 2. Platonism in Logic
13 3. If-Thenism
8 4. Logic by Convention
D. Assumptions for Logic
18 1. Bivalence
28 2. Excluded Middle
5 3. Contradiction
16 4. Identity in Logic
E. Structures of Logic
36 1. Logical Form
31 2. Logical Connectives a. Logical connectives
3 b. Basic connectives
13 c. not
7 d. and
8 e. or
2 3. Constants in Logic
19 4. Variables in Logic
13 5. Functions in Logic
11 6. Relations in Logic
6 7. Predicates in Logic
9 8. Theories in Logic
F. Referring in Logic
32 1. Naming a. Names
33 b. Names as descriptive
22 c. Names as referential
16 d. Singular terms
13 e. Empty names
6 f. Names eliminated
4 2. Descriptions a. Descriptions
21 b. Definite descriptions
25 c. Theory of definite descriptions
5 3. Property (λ-) Abstraction
G. Quantification
23 1. Quantification
16 2. Domain of Quantification
9 3. Objectual Quantification
23 4. Substitutional Quantification
11 5. Second-Order Quantification
24 6. Plural Quantification
9 7. Unorthodox Quantification
H. Proof Systems
4 1. Proof Systems
7 2. Axiomatic Proof
7 3. Proof from Assumptions
14 4. Natural Deduction
8 5. Tableau Proof
5 6. Sequent Calculi
I. Semantics of Logic
23 1. Semantics of Logic
6 2. Formal Truth
24 3. Logical Truth
12 4. Satisfaction
5 5. Extensionalism
4 6. Intensionalism
J. Model Theory in Logic
35 1. Logical Models
13 2. Isomorphisms
24 3. L÷wenheim-Skolem Theorems
K. Features of Logics
31 1. Axiomatisation
10 2. Consistency
12 3. Soundness
14 4. Completeness
10 5. Incompleteness
17 6. Compactness
7 7. Decidability
10 8. Enumerability
2 9. Expressibility
6 10. Monotonicity
L. Paradox
5 1. Paradox
21 2. Aporiai
9 3. Antinomies
9 4. Paradoxes in Logic a. Achilles paradox
1 b. K÷nig's paradox
4 c. Berry's paradox
2 d. Richard's paradox
2 e. The Lottery paradox
4 5. Paradoxes in Set Theory a. Set theory paradoxes
2 b. Cantor's paradox
5 c. Burali-Forti's paradox
7 d. Russell's paradox
2 e. Mirimanoff's paradox
19 6. Paradoxes in Language a. The Liar paradox
6 b. The Heap paradox ('Sorites')
2 c. Grelling's paradox
1 d. The Preface paradox
3 7. Paradoxes of Time

1188 6. Mathematics
A. Nature of Mathematics
30 1. Mathematics
31 2. Geometry
26 3. Nature of Numbers a. Numbers
25 b. Types of number
19 c. Priority of numbers
6 d. Natural numbers
30 e. Ordinal numbers
8 f. Cardinal numbers
29 g. Real numbers
5 h. Reals from Cauchy
11 i. Reals from cuts
2 j. Complex numbers
1 k. Imaginary numbers
7 l. Zero
7 m. One
2 n. Pi
21 4. Using Numbers a. Units
4 b. Quantity
32 c. Counting procedure
12 d. Counting via concepts
8 e. Counting by correlation
10 f. Arithmetic
11 g. Applying mathematics
26 5. The Infinite a. The Infinite
3 b. Mark of the infinite
5 c. Potential infinite
11 d. Actual infinite
1 e. Countable infinity
5 f. Uncountable infinities
15 g. Continuum Hypothesis
9 h. Ordinal infinity
10 i. Cardinal infinity
6 j. Infinite divisibility
9 k. Infinitesimals
6 l. Limits
B. Foundations for Mathematics
15 1. Foundations for Mathematics
7 2. Proof in Mathematics
21 3. Axioms for Geometry
20 4. Axioms for Number a. Axioms for numbers
2 b. Baby arithmetic
2 c. Robinson arithmetic
25 d. Peano arithmetic
9 e. Peano arithmetic 2nd-order
10 f. Mathematical induction
21 g. Incompleteness of Arithmetic
3 5. Definitions of Number a. Defining numbers
10 b. Greek arithmetic
46 c. Fregean numbers
19 d. Hume's Principle
13 e. Caesar problem
3 f. Zermelo numbers
4 g. Von Neumann numbers
36 6. Mathematics as Set Theory a. Mathematics is set theory
14 b. Mathematics is not set theory
34 7. Mathematical Structuralism a. Structuralism
11 b. Varieties of structuralism
13 c. Nominalist structuralism
12 d. Platonist structuralism
23 e. Structuralism critique
C. Sources of Mathematics
34 1. Mathematical Platonism a. For mathematical platonism
21 b. Against mathematical platonism
11 2. Intuition of Mathematics
5 3. Mathematical Nominalism
36 4. Mathematical Empiricism a. Mathematical empiricism
17 b. Indispensability of mathematics
19 c. Against mathematical empiricism
14 5. Numbers as Adjectival
33 6. Logicism a. Early logicism
23 b. Type theory
15 c. Neo-logicism
40 d. Logicism critique
24 7. Formalism
5 8. Finitism
11 9. Fictional Mathematics
16 10. Constructivism a. Constructivism
18 b. Intuitionism
8 c. Conceptualism
19 d. Predicativism
3 e. Psychologism

1041 7. Existence
A. Nature of Existence
21 1. Nature of Existence
18 2. Types of Existence
28 3. Being a. Nature of Being
4 b. Being and existence
11 c. Becoming
13 d. Non-being
9 e. Being and nothing
15 f. Primary being
16 g. Particular being
18 h. Dasein (being human)
10 i. Deflating being
13 4. Abstract Existence
18 5. Reason for Existence
33 6. Criterion for Existence
B. Change in Existence
29 1. Nature of Change
21 2. Processes
4 3. Moments
17 4. Events a. Nature of events
11 b. Events as primitive
19 c. Reduction of events
C. Structure of Existence
25 1. Grounding a. Nature of grounding
8 b. Relata of grounding
8 c. Grounding and explanation
2 d. Grounding and reduction
25 2. Reduction
6 3. Levels of Reality
17 4. Ontological Dependence
14 5. Supervenience a. Nature of supervenience
9 b. Types of supervenience
23 c. Significance of supervenience
8 d. Humean supervenience
3 6. Fundamentals a. Fundamental reality
2 b. Types of fundamental
24 c. Monads
24 d. Logical atoms
26 7. Abstract/Concrete a. Abstract/concrete
6 b. Levels of abstraction
17 8. Stuff a. Pure stuff
7 b. Mixtures
D. Theories of Reality
15 1. Ontologies
41 2. Realism
25 3. Reality
36 4. Anti-realism
6 5. Naturalism
20 6. Physicalism
12 7. Fictionalism
21 8. Facts a. Facts
12 b. Types of fact
6 c. Facts and truths
6 d. Negative facts
4 e. Facts rejected
8 9. States of Affairs
7 10. Vagueness a. Problem of vagueness
15 b. Vagueness of reality
14 c. Vagueness as ignorance
18 d. Vagueness as linguistic
2 e. Higher-order vagueness
30 f. Supervaluation for vagueness
7 g. Degrees of vagueness
21 11. Ontological Commitment a. Ontological commitment
9 b. Commitment of quantifiers
5 c. Commitment of predicates
11 d. Commitment of theories
17 e. Ontological commitment problems
E. Categories
21 1. Categories
17 2. Categorisation
23 3. Proposed Categories
11 4. Category Realism
19 5. Category Anti-Realism

881 8. Modes of Existence
A. Relations
35 1. Nature of Relations
15 2. Internal Relations
4 3. Structural Relations
12 4. Formal Relations a. Types of relation
2 b. Equivalence relation
4 c. Ancestral relation
B. Properties
35 1. Nature of Properties
9 2. Need for Properties
17 3. Types of Properties
18 4. Intrinsic Properties
30 5. Natural Properties
29 6. Categorical Properties
14 7. Emergent Properties
17 8. Properties as Modes
4 9. Qualities
30 10. Properties as Predicates
22 11. Properties as Sets
18 12. Denial of Properties
36 13. Tropes a. Nature of tropes
22 b. Critique of tropes
C. Powers and Dispositions
33 1. Powers
39 2. Powers as Basic
23 3. Powers as Derived
24 4. Powers as Essence
29 5. Powers and Properties
25 6. Dispositions a. Dispositions
13 b. Dispositions and powers
12 c. Dispositions as conditional
11 d. Dispositions as occurrent
5 e. Dispositions as potential
18 7. Against Powers
D. Universals
37 1. Universals
25 2. Need for Universals
12 3. Instantiated Universals
13 4. Uninstantiated Universals
7 5. Universals as Concepts
26 6. Platonic Forms a. Platonic Forms
21 b. Partaking
6 c. Self-predication
23 d. Forms critiques
E. Nominalism
17 1. Nominalism a. Nominalism
16 b. Nominalism about universals
9 c. Nominalism about abstracta
23 2. Resemblance Nominalism
13 3. Predicate Nominalism
6 4. Concept Nominalism
17 5. Class Nominalism
5 6. Mereological Nominalism

1528 9. Objects
A. Existence of Objects
37 1. Physical Objects
16 2. Abstract Objects a. Nature of abstracta
5 b. Need for abstracta
17 c. Modern abstracta
7 d. Problems with abstracta
15 3. Objects in Thought
17 4. Impossible objects
9 5. Simples
37 5. Individuation a. Individuation
11 b. Individuation by properties
12 c. Individuation by location
21 d. Individuation by haecceity
40 e. Individuation by kind
30 6. Nihilism about Objects
B. Unity of Objects
23 1. Unifying an Object a. Intrinsic unification
18 b. Unifying aggregates
11 c. Unity as conceptual
41 2. Substance a. Substance
6 b. Need for substance
20 c. Types of substance
37 d. Substance defined
20 e. Substance critique
3 3. Unity Problems a. Scattered objects
8 b. Cat and its tail
38 c. Statue and clay
10 d. Coincident objects
29 e. Vague objects
C. Structure of Objects
15 1. Structure of an Object
30 2. Hylomorphism a. Hylomorphism
8 b. Form as principle
8 c. Form as causal
11 d. Form as unifier
13 3. Matter of an Object
9 4. Quantity of an Object
23 5. Composition of an Object
21 6. Constitution of an Object
22 7. Substratum
27 8. Parts of Objects a. Parts of objects
22 b. Sums of parts
45 c. Wholes from parts
D. Essence of Objects
27 1. Essences of Objects
17 2. Types of Essence
40 3. Individual Essences
21 4. Essence as Definition
27 5. Essence as Kind
24 6. Essence as Unifier
21 7. Essence and Necessity a. Essence as necessary properties
22 b. Essence not necessities
9 c. Essentials are necessary
21 8. Essence as Explanatory
33 9. Essence and Properties
18 10. Essence as Species
11 11. Essence of Artefacts
7 12. Essential Parts
29 13. Nominal Essence
19 14. Knowledge of Essences
34 15. Against Essentialism
E. Objects over Time
16 1. Objects over Time
17 2. Objects that Change
12 3. Three-Dimensionalism
24 4. Four-Dimensionalism
21 5. Temporal Parts
10 6. Successive Things
8 7. Intermittent Objects
9 8. Continuity of Rivers
19 9. Ship of Theseus
9 10. Beginning of an Object
3 11. End of an Object
21 12. Origin as Essential
3 13. No Identity over Time
F. Identity among Objects
33 1. Concept of Identity
14 2. Defining Identity
18 3. Relative Identity
11 4. Type Identity
23 5. Self-Identity
20 6. Identity between Objects
38 7. Indiscernible Objects
18 8. Leibniz's Law
9 9. Sameness

799 10. Modality
A. Necessity
8 1. Types of Modality
24 2. Nature of Necessity
26 3. Types of Necessity
14 4. De re / De dicto modality
29 5. Metaphysical Necessity
40 6. Logical Necessity
18 7. Natural Necessity
6 8. Transcendental Necessity
1 9. Normative Necessity
7 10. Impossibility
20 11. Denial of Necessity
B. Possibility
41 1. Possibility
3 2. Epistemic possibility
4 3. Combinatorial possibility
13 4. Potentiality
10 5. Contingency
15 6. Probability
10 7. Chance
11 8. Conditionals a. Conditionals
6 b. Types of conditional
25 c. Truth-function conditionals
15 d. Non-truthfunction conditionals
6 e. Supposition conditionals
6 f. Pragmatics of conditionals
23 9. Counterfactuals
C. Sources of Modality
28 1. Sources of Necessity
3 2. Necessity as Primitive
11 3. Necessity by Convention
13 4. Necessity from Concepts
15 5. Modality from Actuality
17 6. Necessity from Essence
D. Knowledge of Modality
22 1. A Priori Necessary
6 2. A Priori Contingent
10 3. A Posteriori Necessary
26 4. Conceivable as Possible a. Conceivable as possible
10 b. Conceivable but impossible
6 c. Possible but inconceivable
E. Possible worlds
32 1. Possible Worlds a. Possible worlds
8 b. Impossible worlds
13 c. Possible worlds realism
13 d. Possible worlds actualism
29 e. Against possible worlds
32 2. Nature of Possible Worlds a. Nature of possible worlds
8 b. Worlds as fictions
7 c. Worlds as propositions
31 3. Transworld Objects a. Transworld identity
22 b. Rigid designation
31 c. Counterparts
16 d. Haecceitism
9 e. Possible Objects

484 11. Knowledge Aims
A. Knowledge
38 1. Knowledge
43 2. Understanding
8 3. Value of Knowledge
28 4. Belief a. Beliefs
10 b. Elements of beliefs
25 c. Aim of beliefs
15 d. Cause of beliefs
9 e. Belief holism
4 f. Animal beliefs
5 5. Aiming at Truth
7 6. Knowing How
11 7. Knowledge First
B. Certain Knowledge
34 1. Certainty
7 2. Common Sense Certainty
13 3. Fallibilism
30 4. The Cogito
33 5. Cogito Critique
C. Knowing Reality
5 1. Perceptual Realism a. Na´ve realism
16 b. Direct realism
9 c. Representative realism
31 2. Phenomenalism
19 3. Idealism a. Idealism
23 b. Transcendental idealism
15 c. Empirical idealism
38 d. Absolute idealism
8 4. Solipsism

711 12. Knowledge Sources
A. A Priori Knowledge
22 1. Nature of the A Priori
23 2. Self-Evidence
16 3. Innate Knowledge a. Innate knowledge
6 b. Recollection doctrine
8 c. Tabula rasa
19 4. A Priori as Necessities
26 5. A Priori Synthetic
7 6. A Priori from Reason
6 7. A Priori from Convention
20 8. A Priori as Analytic
15 9. A Priori from Concepts
7 10. A Priori as Subjective
11 11. Denying the A Priori
B. Perception
34 1. Perception
8 2. Qualities in Perception a. Qualities in perception
19 b. Primary/secondary
21 c. Primary qualities
32 d. Secondary qualities
17 e. Primary/secondary critique
23 3. Representation
23 4. Sense Data a. Sense-data theory
17 b. Nature of sense-data
4 c. Unperceived sense-data
19 d. Sense-data problems
26 5. Interpretation
21 6. Inference in Perception
10 7. Causal Perception
12 8. Adverbial Theory
C. Rationalism
42 1. Rationalism
D. Empiricism
38 1. Empiricism
18 2. Associationism
8 3. Pragmatism
20 4. Pro-Empiricism
38 5. Empiricism Critique
E. Direct Knowledge
9 1. Common Sense
26 2. Intuition
3 3. Inspiration
37 4. Memory

633 13. Knowledge Criteria
A. Justification Problems
15 1. Justification a. Justification issues
12 b. Need for justification
10 c. Defeasibility
10 2. Justification Challenges a. Agrippa's trilemma
13 b. Gettier problem
17 c. Knowledge closure
24 3. Internal or External a. Pro-internalism
5 b. Pro-externalism
3 c. Disjunctivism
B. Internal Justification
10 1. Epistemic virtues
8 2. Pragmatic justification
17 3. Evidentialism a. Evidence
9 b. Evidentialism
16 4. Foundationalism a. Foundationalism
15 b. Basic beliefs
11 c. Empirical foundations
8 d. Rational foundations
6 e. Pro-foundations
18 f. Foundationalism critique
31 5. Coherentism a. Coherence as justification
18 b. Pro-coherentism
23 c. Coherentism critique
C. External Justification
20 1. External Justification
14 2. Causal Justification
14 3. Reliabilism a. Reliable knowledge
15 b. Anti-reliabilism
3 4. Tracking the Facts
5 5. Controlling Beliefs
18 6. Contextual Justification a. Contextualism
10 b. Invariantism
18 7. Testimony
9 8. Social Justification
7 9. Naturalised Epistemology
7 10. Anti External Justification
D. Scepticism
33 1. Scepticism
8 2. Types of Scepticism
18 3. Illusion Scepticism
3 4. Demon Scepticism
7 5. Dream Scepticism
30 6. Scepticism Critique
E. Relativism
31 1. Relativism
4 2. Knowledge as Convention
22 3. Subjectivism
12 4. Cultural relativism
7 5. Language Relativism
19 6. Relativism Critique

674 14. Science
A. Basis of Science
8 1. Observation
27 2. Demonstration
15 3. Experiment
18 4. Prediction
7 5. Anomalies
21 6. Falsification
B. Scientific Theories
39 1. Scientific Theory
15 2. Aim of Science
14 3. Instrumentalism
4 4. Paradigm
10 5. Commensurability
4 6. Theory Holism
7 7. Scientific Models
8 8. Ramsey Sentences
C. Induction
27 1. Induction
14 2. Aims of Induction
32 3. Limits of Induction
12 4. Reason in Induction
20 5. Paradoxes of Induction a. Grue problem
16 b. Raven paradox
19 6. Bayes's Theorem
D. Explanation
18 1. Explanation a. Explanation
26 b. Aims of explanation
6 c. Direction of explanation
3 d. Explaining people
34 2. Types of Explanation a. Types of explanation
4 b. Contrastive explanations
14 c. Explanations by coherence
3 d. Consilience
35 e. Lawlike explanations
5 f. Necessity in explanations
32 g. Causal explanations
4 h. Explanations by function
32 i. Explanations by mechanism
14 j. Explanations by reduction
35 k. Explanations by essence
7 l. Probabilistic explanations
5 m. Explanation by proof
26 3. Best Explanation a. Best explanation
12 b. Ultimate explanation
11 c. Against best explanation
9 4. Explanation Doubts a. Explanation as pragmatic
2 b. Rejecting explanation

546 15. Nature of Minds
A. Nature of Mind
9 1. Mind a. Mind
9 b. Purpose of mind
14 c. Features of mind
9 d. Location of mind
10 e. Questions about mind
27 2. Psuche
12 3. Mental Causation
4 4. Other Minds a. Other minds
6 b. Scepticism of other minds
22 c. Knowing other minds
12 d. Other minds by analogy
25 5. Unity of Mind
12 6. Anti-Individualism
12 7. Animal Minds
15 8. Brain
B. Features of Minds
21 1. Consciousness a. Consciousness
12 b. Essence of consciousness
7 c. Parts of consciousness
12 d. Purpose of consciousness
18 e. Cause of consciousness
16 f. Higher-order thought
18 2. Unconscious Mind
9 3. Privacy
17 4. Intentionality a. Nature of intentionality
23 b. Intentionality theories
17 5. Qualia a. Nature of qualia
12 b. Qualia and intentionality
13 c. Explaining qualia
8 6. Inverted Qualia
7 7. Blindsight
C. Capacities of Minds
20 1. Faculties
13 2. Imagination
26 3. Abstraction by mind
6 4. Objectification
31 5. Generalisation by mind
9 6. Idealisation
12 7. Seeing Resemblance
3 8. Remembering Contiguity
6 9. Perceiving Causation
12 10. Conatus/Striving

492 16. Persons
A. Concept of a Person
9 1. Existence of Persons
5 2. Persons as Responsible
5 3. Persons as Reasoners
11 4. Persons as Agents
B. Nature of the Self
7 1. Self and Consciousness
4 2. Ethical Self
5 3. Self as Non-physical
20 4. Presupposition of Self
13 5. Self as Associations
9 6. Self as Higher Awareness
15 7. Self and Body a. Self needs body
2 b. Self as brain
2 c. Self as brain controller
C. Self-Awareness
15 1. Introspection
29 2. Knowing the Self
23 3. Limits of Introspection
5 4. Errors in Introspection
D. Continuity of the Self
4 1. Identity and the Self
21 2. Mental Continuity a. Memory is Self
22 b. Self as mental continuity
20 c. Inadequacy of mental continuity
7 3. Reference of 'I'
5 4. Split Consciousness
3 5. Concerns of the Self
2 6. Body sustains Self
8 7. Self and Thinking
E. Rejecting the Self
6 1. Self as Indeterminate
13 2. Self as Social Construct
6 3. Narrative Self
24 4. Denial of the Self
F. Free Will
30 1. Nature of Free Will
20 2. Sources of Free Will
7 3. Constraints on the will
22 4. For Free Will
40 5. Against Free Will
30 6. Determinism a. Determinism
11 b. Fate
12 7. Compatibilism

495 17. Mind and Body
A. Mind-Body Dualism
22 1. Dualism
18 2. Interactionism
12 3. Panpsychism
5 4. Occasionalism
8 5. Parallelism
13 6. Epiphenomenalism
11 7. Zombies
32 8. Dualism of Mind Critique
B. Behaviourism
7 1. Behaviourism
13 2. Potential Behaviour
4 3. Intentional Stance
25 4. Behaviourism Critique
C. Functionalism
22 1. Functionalism
9 2. Machine Functionalism
2 3. Psycho-Functionalism
7 4. Causal Functionalism
5 5. Teleological Functionalism
4 6. Homuncular Functionalism
11 7. Chinese Room
18 8. Functionalism critique
D. Property Dualism
10 1. Reductionism critique
13 2. Anomalous Monism
17 3. Property Dualism
9 4. Emergentism
19 5. Supervenience of mind
13 6. Mysterianism
E. Mind as Physical
39 1. Physical Mind
22 2. Reduction of Mind
19 3. Eliminativism
14 4. Connectionism
13 5. Causal Argument
4 6. Conceptual Dualism
14 7. Anti-Physicalism a. Physicalism critique
24 b. Multiple realisability
7 c. Knowledge argument
5 d. Explanatory gap
5 e. Modal argument

857 18. Thought
A. Modes of Thought
34 1. Thought
8 2. Propositional Attitudes
17 3. Emotions a. Nature of emotions
5 b. Types of emotion
19 c. Role of emotions
7 d. Emotional feeling
12 e. Basic emotions
11 f. Emotion and reason
13 g. Controlling emotions
19 4. Folk Psychology
28 5. Rationality a. Rationality
14 b. Human rationality
4 c. Animal rationality
20 6. Judgement a. Nature of Judgement
9 b. Error
2 7. Intelligence
7 8. Human Thought
19 9. Indexical Thought
6 10. Rule Following
B. Mechanics of Thought
4 1. Psychology
6 2. Categories of Understanding
14 3. Modularity of Mind
19 4. Language of Thought
24 5. Mental Files
10 6. Artificial Thought a. Artificial Intelligence
5 b. Turing Machines
6 c. Turing Test
C. Content
26 1. Content
18 2. Ideas
20 5. Twin Earth
39 6. Broad Content
10 7. Narrow Content
5 8. Intension
3 9. Conceptual Role Semantics
7 10. Causal Semantics
3 11. Teleological Semantics
2 12. Informational Semantics
D. Concepts
28 1. Concepts a. Nature of concepts
5 b. Concepts in philosophy
6 c. Concepts in psychology
12 2. Origin of Concepts a. Origin of concepts
9 b. Empirical concepts
15 c. Nativist concepts
8 3. Ontology of Concepts a. Concepts as representations
18 b. Concepts as abilities
20 c. Fregean concepts
9 4. Structure of Concepts a. Conceptual structure
10 b. Analysis of concepts
14 c. Classical concepts
22 d. Concepts as prototypes
10 e. Concepts from exemplars
16 f. Theory theory of concepts
4 g. Conceptual atomism
5 h. Family resemblance
4 i. Conceptual priority
7 5. Concepts and Language a. Concepts and language
5 b. Concepts are linguistic
4 c. Concepts without language
E. Abstraction
22 1. Abstract Thought
24 2. Abstracta by Selection
23 3. Abstracta by Ignoring
2 4. Abstracta by Example
7 5. Abstracta by Negation
5 6. Abstracta by Conflation
40 7. Abstracta by Equivalence
28 8. Abstractionism Critique

835 19. Language
A. Nature of Meaning
30 1. Meaning
15 2. Meaning as Mental
9 3. Meaning as Speaker's Intention
33 4. Meaning as Truth-Conditions
36 5. Meaning as Verification
27 6. Meaning as Use
11 7. Meaning Holism a. Sentence meaning
16 b. Language holism
12 c. Meaning by Role
8 8. Synonymy
4 9. Ambiguity
14 10. Denial of Meanings
B. Reference
29 1. Reference theories
5 2. Denoting
11 3. Direct Reference a. Direct reference
22 b. Causal reference
12 c. Social reference
17 4. Descriptive Reference a. Sense and reference
25 b. Reference by description
12 5. Speaker's Reference
C. Assigning Meanings
9 1. Syntax
26 2. Semantics
25 3. Predicates
16 4. Compositionality
17 5. Fregean Semantics
15 6. Truth-Conditions Semantics
8 7. Extensional Semantics
17 8. Possible Worlds Semantics
15 9. Indexical Semantics
20 10. Two-Dimensional Semantics
D. Propositions
33 1. Propositions
19 2. Abstract Propositions a. Propositions as sense
9 b. Propositions as possible worlds
14 3. Concrete Propositions
20 4. Mental Propositions
8 5. Unity of Propositions
15 6. Propositions Critique
E. Analyticity
20 1. Analytic Propositions
12 2. Analytic Truths
7 3. Analytic and Synthetic
17 4. Analytic/Synthetic Critique
F. Communication
24 1. Rhetoric
4 2. Assertion
10 3. Denial
21 4. Private Language
10 5. Pragmatics a. Contextual meaning
11 b. Implicature
5 c. Presupposition
6 6. Interpreting Language a. Translation
19 b. Indeterminate translation
21 c. Principle of charity
14 d. Metaphor

312 20. Action
A. Definition of Action
12 1. Action Theory
6 2. Duration of an Action
2 3. Actions and Events
5 4. Action as Movement
1 5. Action as Trying
B. Preliminaries of Action
17 1. Intention to Act a. Nature of intentions
5 b. Types of intention
4 c. Reducing intentions
6 d. Group intentions
33 2. Willed Action a. Will to Act
4 b. Volitionism
8 c. Agent causation
30 d. Weakness of will
C. Motives for Action
17 1. Acting on Desires
6 2. Acting on Beliefs a. Acting on beliefs
4 b. Action cognitivism
31 3. Acting on Reason a. Practical reason
31 b. Intellectualism
22 c. Reasons as causes
30 4. Responsibility for Actions
12 5. Action Dilemmas a. Dilemmas
14 b. Double Effect
12 c. Omissions

264 21. Aesthetics
A. Aesthetic Experience
9 1. Aesthetics
21 2. Aesthetic Attitude
11 3. Taste
30 4. Beauty
14 5. Natural Beauty
10 6. The Sublime
B. Nature of Art
10 1. Defining Art
9 2. Art as Form
2 3. Art as Imitation
19 4. Art as Expression
4 5. Art as Language
8 6. Art as Institution
9 7. Ontology of Art
8 8. The Arts a. Music
11 b. Literature
C. Artistic Issues
14 1. Artistic Intentions
4 2. Copies of Art
4 3. Artistic Representation
6 4. Emotion in Art
8 5. Objectivism in Art
14 6. Value of Art
39 7. Art and Morality

960 22. Metaethics
A. Ethics Foundations
9 1. Nature of Ethics a. Preconditions for ethics
15 b. Defining ethics
8 c. Purpose of ethics
28 d. Ethical theory
7 e. Ethical cognitivism
10 f. Ethical non-cognitivism
38 g. Moral responsibility
8 h. Against ethics
11 2. Source of Ethics a. Idealistic ethics
33 b. Rational ethics
31 c. Ethical intuitionism
10 d. Biological ethics
58 e. Human nature
18 f. ▄bermensch
8 g. Will to power
30 h. Expressivism
17 i. Prescriptivism
29 j. Ethics by convention
11 k. Ethics from nature
B. Value
23 1. Nature of Value a. Nature of value
25 b. Fact and value
9 c. Objective value
16 d. Subjective value
8 e. Means and ends
32 f. Ultimate value
8 2. Values a. Normativity
9 b. Successful function
10 c. Life
11 d. Health
26 e. Death
16 f. Altruism
54 g. Love
10 h. Fine deeds
18 i. Self-interest
9 j. Evil
C. The Good
24 1. Goodness a. Form of the Good
19 b. Types of good
12 c. Right and good
6 d. Good as virtue
6 e. Good as knowledge
16 f. Good as pleasure
34 g. Consequentialism
5 h. Good as benefit
9 i. Moral luck
18 2. Happiness a. Nature of happiness
15 b. Eudaimonia
14 c. Value of happiness
32 d. Routes to happiness
10 3. Pleasure a. Nature of pleasure
16 b. Types of pleasure
26 c. Value of pleasure
9 d. Sources of pleasure
12 e. Role of pleasure
14 f. Dangers of pleasure

987 23. Ethics
A. Egoism
26 1. Ethical Egoism
9 2. Hedonism
5 3. Cyrenaic School
B. Contract Ethics
25 1. Contractarianism
14 2. Golden Rule
8 3. Promise Keeping
4 4. Value of Authority
6 5. Free Rider
3 6. Game Theory
3 7. Prisoner's Dilemma
8 8. Contract Strategies
4 9. Contractualism
C. Virtue Theory
53 1. Virtue Theory a. Nature of virtue
22 b. Basis of virtue
18 c. Particularism
20 d. Virtue theory critique
5 2. Elements of Virtue Theory a. Natural virtue
8 b. Living naturally
44 c. Motivation for virtue
28 d. Teaching virtue
46 e. Character
26 f. The Mean
1 g. Desires
9 h. Right feelings
6 i. Absolute virtues
19 j. Unity of virtue
40 3. Virtues a. Virtues
11 b. Temperance
30 c. Justice
15 d. Courage
11 e. Honour
20 f. Compassion
13 g. Contemplation
18 h. Respect
8 4. External Goods a. External goods
2 b. Health
18 c. Wealth
21 d. Friendship
D. Deontological Ethics
24 1. Deontology
44 2. Duty
22 3. Universalisability
27 4. Categorical Imperative
5 5. Persons as Ends
19 6. Motivation for Duty
E. Utilitarianism
37 1. Utilitarianism
8 2. Ideal of Pleasure
8 3. Motivation for Altruism
3 4. Unfairness
4 5. Rule Utilitarianism
1 6. Ideal Utilitarianism
F. Existentialism
25 1. Existentialism
19 2. Nihilism
18 3. Angst
29 4. Boredom
10 5. Existence-Essence
29 6. Authentic Self
17 7. Existential Action
11 8. Eternal Recurrence

912 24. Political Theory
A. Basis of a State
23 1. A People a. Human distinctiveness
24 b. The natural life
37 c. A unified people
5 2. Population a. Human population
10 b. State population
8 3. Natural Values a. Natural freedom
5 b. Natural equality
22 c. Natural rights
7 4. Original Position a. Original position
8 b. Veil of ignorance
3 c. Difference principle
B. Nature of a State
39 1. Purpose of a State
12 2. State Legitimacy a. Sovereignty
3 b. Natural authority
30 c. Social contract
33 d. General will
21 3. Constitutions
35 4. Citizenship
12 5. Culture
C. Ruling a State
23 1. Social Power
6 2. Leaders a. Autocracy
21 b. Monarchy
22 c. Despotism
23 d. Elites
11 3. Government a. Government
3 b. Legislature
5 c. Executive
2 d. Size of government
5 4. Changing the State a. Centralisation
5 b. Devolution
18 c. Revolution
D. Ideologies
10 1. Ideology
14 2. Anarchism
13 3. Conservatism
12 4. Social Utilitarianism
34 5. Democracy a. Nature of democracy
23 b. Consultation
9 c. Direct democracy
20 d. Representative democracy
6 e. Democratic minorities
13 f. Against democracy
24 6. Liberalism a. Liberalism basics
20 b. Liberal individualism
9 c. Liberal equality
13 d. Liberal freedom
10 e. Liberal community
10 f. Multiculturalism
24 g. Liberalism critique
35 7. Communitarianism a. Communitarianism
13 b. Against communitarianism
13 8. Socialism
36 9. Communism
7 10. Theocracy
36 11. Capitalism
10 12. Feminism
6 13. Green Politics
11 14. Nationalism

750 25. Social Practice
A. Freedoms
29 1. Slavery
6 2. Freedom of belief
16 3. Free speech
10 4. Free market
40 5. Freedom of lifestyle
8 6. Political freedom
2 7. Freedom to leave
B. Equalities
38 1. Grounds of equality
16 2. Political equality
4 3. Legal equality
25 4. Economic equality
C. Rights
43 1. Basis of Rights
4 2. Moral rights
15 3. Alienating rights
47 4. Property rights
D. Justice
42 1. Basis of justice
17 2. The Law a. Legal system
12 b. Rule of law
22 c. Natural law
6 d. Legal positivism
21 3. Punishment a. Right to punish
13 b. Retribution for crime
4 c. Deterrence of crime
6 d. Reform of offenders
E. Policies
30 1. War a. Just wars
14 b. Justice in war
18 c. Combatants
7 d. Non-combatants
9 e. Peace
22 2. Religion in Society
5 3. Welfare provision
5 4. Taxation
14 5. Education a. Aims of education
18 b. Education principles
19 c. Teaching
19 d. Study of history
F. Life Issues
9 1. Causing Death
11 2. Euthanasia
33 3. Abortion
24 4. Suicide
14 5. Sexual Morality
33 6. Animal Rights

992 26. Natural Theory
A. Speculations on Nature
34 1. Nature
13 2. Natural Purpose a. Final purpose
17 b. Limited purposes
14 c. Purpose denied
8 3. Natural Function
14 4. Mathematical Nature
14 5. Infinite in Nature
12 6. Early Matter Theories a. Greek matter
11 b. Prime matter
11 c. Ultimate substances
7 d. The unlimited
20 e. The One
28 f. Ancient elements
40 g. Atomism
10 7. Later Matter Theories a. Early Modern matter
7 b. Corpuscles
8 c. Matter as extension
B. Natural Kinds
20 1. Natural Kinds
9 2. Defining Kinds
9 3. Knowing Kinds
13 4. Source of Kinds
13 5. Reference to Natural Kinds
7 6. Necessity of Kinds
12 7. Critique of Kinds
C. Causation
32 1. Causation
21 2. Types of cause
5 3. Final causes
28 4. Naturalised causation
19 5. Direction of causation
5 6. Causation as primitive
19 7. Eliminating causation
11 8. Particular Causation a. Observation of causation
41 b. Causal relata
19 c. Conditions of causation
14 d. Selecting the cause
10 e. Probabilistic causation
24 9. General Causation a. Constant conjunction
22 b. Nomological causation
37 c. Counterfactual causation
31 d. Causal necessity
D. Laws of Nature
40 1. Laws of Nature
11 2. Types of Laws
8 3. Laws and Generalities
41 4. Regularities a. Regularity theory
17 b. Best system theory
13 5. Laws from Universals
6 6. Laws as Numerical
12 7. Strictness of Laws
37 8. Scientific Essentialism a. Scientific essentialism
26 b. Scientific necessity
22 c. Essence and laws
15 d. Knowing essences
17 e. Anti scientific essentialism
10 9. Counterfactual Claims
4 10. Closure of Physics
24 11. Against Laws of Nature

713 27. Natural Reality
A. Classical Physics
32 1. Mechanics a. Explaining movement
10 b. Laws of motion
25 c. Forces
5 d. Gravity
8 2. Thermodynamics a. Energy
3 b. Heat
6 c. Conservation of energy
6 d. Entropy
B. Modern Physics
10 1. Relativity a. Special relativity
5 b. General relativity
13 2. Electrodynamics a. Electrodynamics
14 b. Fields
10 c. Electrons
13 d. Quantum mechanics
5 3. Chromodynamics a. Chromodynamics
3 b. Quarks
19 4. Standard Model a. Concept of matter
11 b. Standard model
10 c. Particle properties
4 d. Mass
4 e. Protons
3 f. Neutrinos
1 g. Anti-matter
2 5. Unified Models a. Electro-weak unity
8 b. String theory
5 c. Supersymmetry
C. Space
8 1. Void
12 2. Space
13 3. Points in Space
16 4. Substantival Space
8 5. Relational Space
16 6. Space-Time
D. Time
13 1. Nature of Time a. Absolute time
10 b. Relative time
9 c. Idealist time
9 d. Time as measure
7 e. Eventless time
8 f. Eternalism
12 g. Growing block
30 h. Presentism
11 i. Denying time
11 2. Passage of Time a. Experience of time
6 b. Rate of time
10 c. Tenses and time
13 d. Time series
12 e. Tensed (A) series
12 f. Tenseless (B) series
24 g. Time's arrow
5 h. Change in time
4 i. Time and motion
6 j. Time travel
7 k. Temporal truths
5 3. Parts of Time a. Beginning of time
5 b. Instants
4 c. Intervals
5 d. Measuring time
13 e. Present moment
E. Cosmology
16 1. Cosmology
8 2. Eternal Universe
10 3. The Beginning
2 7. Black Holes
3 8. Dark Matter
2 9. Fine-Tuned Universe
4 10. Multiverse
F. Chemistry
20 1. Chemistry
9 2. Modern Elements
17 3. Periodic Table
G. Biology
3 1. Biology
21 2. Life
23 3. Evolution
3 4. Ecology
13 5. Species

428 28. God
A. Divine Nature
9 1. God
41 2. Divine Nature
21 3. Divine Perfections
17 4. Divine Contradictions
9 5. God and Time
11 6. Divine Morality a. Divine morality
20 b. Euthyphro question
14 c. God is the good
16 d. God decrees morality
B. Proving God
11 1. Proof of God
37 2. Proofs of Reason a. Ontological Proof
38 b. Ontological Proof critique
6 c. Moral Argument
6 d. Pascal's Wager
21 3. Proofs of Evidence a. Cosmological Proof
32 b. Teleological Proof
28 c. Teleological Proof critique
5 d. Religious Experience
13 e. Miracles
C. Attitudes to God
3 1. Monotheism
12 2. Pantheism
5 3. Deism
18 4. God Reflects Humanity
35 5. Atheism

296 29. Religion
A. Polytheistic Religion
3 1. Animism
13 2. Greek Polytheism
8 3. Hinduism
6 4. Dualist Religion
B. Monotheistic Religion
3 1. Monotheistic Religion
15 2. Judaism
5 3. Zoroastrianism
36 4. Christianity a. Christianity
1 b. Transubstantiation
5 c. Angels
4 d. Heresy
4 5. Bible
8 6. Islam
C. Spiritual Disciplines
1 1. Confucianism
4 2. Taoism
12 3. Buddhism
3 4. Zen Buddhism
D. Religious Issues
30 1. Religious Commitment a. Religious Belief
4 b. Religious Meaning
3 c. Religious Verification
3 d. Religious Falsification
12 e. Fideism
35 2. Immortality a. Immortality
19 b. Soul
2 c. Animal Souls
13 d. Heaven
4 e. Hell
20 3. Problem of Evil a. Problem of Evil
6 b. Human Evil
4 c. Human Error
10 d. Natural Evil