### Ideas from 'Function and Concept' by Gottlob Frege [1891], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Translations from the Writings of Gottlob Frege' by Frege,Gottlob (ed/tr Geach,P/Black,M) [Blackwell 1980,0-631-12911-1]].

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###### 4. Formal Logic / A. Syllogistic Logic / 2. Syllogistic Logic
 Full Idea: Frege rejected the traditional categories as importing psychological and linguistic impurities into logic. From: report of Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891]) by Ian Rumfitt - The Boundary Stones of Thought 1.2 A reaction: Resisting such impurities is the main motivation for making logic entirely symbolic, but it doesn't follow that the traditional categories have to be dropped.
###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 5. Functions in Logic
 8490 First-level functions have objects as arguments; second-level functions take functions as arguments
 Full Idea: Just as functions are fundamentally different from objects, so also functions whose arguments are and must be functions are fundamentally different from functions whose arguments are objects. The latter are first-level, the former second-level, functions. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.38) A reaction: In 1884 he called it 'second-order'. This is the standard distinction between first- and second-order logic. The first quantifies over objects, the second over intensional entities such as properties and propositions.
###### 5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 6. Relations in Logic
 8492 Relations are functions with two arguments
 Full Idea: Functions of one argument are concepts; functions of two arguments are relations. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.39) A reaction: Nowadays we would say 'two or more'. Another interesting move in the aim of analytic philosophy to reduce the puzzling features of the world to mathematical logic. There is, of course, rather more to some relations than being two-argument functions.
###### 6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 6. Logicism / a. Early logicism
 8487 Arithmetic is a development of logic, so arithmetical symbolism must expand into logical symbolism
 Full Idea: I am of the opinion that arithmetic is a further development of logic, which leads to the requirement that the symbolic language of arithmetic must be expanded into a logical symbolism. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.30) A reaction: This may the the one key idea at the heart of modern analytic philosophy (even though logicism may be a total mistake!). Logic and arithmetical foundations become the master of ontology, instead of the servant. The jury is out on the whole enterprise.
###### 7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 6. Criterion for Existence
 18899 Frege takes the existence of horses to be part of their concept
 Full Idea: Frege regarded the existence of horses as a property of the concept 'horse'. From: report of Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891]) by Fred Sommers - Intellectual Autobiography 'Realism'
###### 8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 10. Properties as Predicates
 4028 Frege allows either too few properties (as extensions) or too many (as predicates)
 Full Idea: Frege's theory of properties (which he calls 'concepts') yields too few properties, by identifying coextensive properties, and also too many, by letting every predicate express a property. From: comment on Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891]) by DH Mellor / A Oliver - Introduction to 'Properties' §2 A reaction: Seems right; one extension may have two properties (have heart/kidneys), two predicates might express the same property. 'Cutting nature at the joints' covers properties as well as objects.
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 3. Objects in Thought
 8489 The concept 'object' is too simple for analysis; unlike a function, it is an expression with no empty place
 Full Idea: I regard a regular definition of 'object' as impossible, since it is too simple to admit of logical analysis. Briefly: an object is anything that is not a function, so that an expression for it does not contain any empty place. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.32) A reaction: Here is the core of the programme for deriving our ontology from our logic and language, followed through by Russell and Quine. Once we extend objects beyond the physical, it becomes incredibly hard to individuate them.
###### 18. Thought / D. Concepts / 3. Ontology of Concepts / c. Fregean concepts
 9947 Concepts are the ontological counterparts of predicative expressions
 Full Idea: Concepts, for Frege, are the ontological counterparts of predicative expressions. From: report of Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891]) by A.George / D.J.Velleman - Philosophies of Mathematics Ch.2 A reaction: That sounds awfully like what many philosophers call 'universals'. Frege, as a platonist (at least about numbers), I would take to be in sympathy with that. At least we can say that concepts seem to be properties.
 10319 An assertion about the concept 'horse' must indirectly speak of an object
 Full Idea: Frege had a notorious difficulty over the concept 'horse', when he suggests that if we wish to assert something about a concept, we are obliged to proceed indirectly by speaking of an object that represents it. From: report of Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], Ch.2.II) by Bob Hale - Abstract Objects A reaction: This sounds like the thin end of a wedge. The great champion of objects is forced to accept them here as a façon de parler, when elsewhere they have ontological status.
 8488 A concept is a function whose value is always a truth-value
 Full Idea: A concept in logic is closely connected with what we call a function. Indeed, we may say at once: a concept is a function whose value is always a truth-value. ..I give the name 'function' to what is meant by the 'unsaturated' part. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.30) A reaction: So a function becomes a concept when the variable takes a value. Problems arise when the value is vague, or the truth-value is indeterminable.
###### 18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / a. Conceptual structure
 9948 Unlike objects, concepts are inherently incomplete
 Full Idea: For Frege, concepts differ from objects in being inherently incomplete in nature. From: report of Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891]) by A.George / D.J.Velleman - Philosophies of Mathematics Ch.2 A reaction: This is because they are 'unsaturated', needing a quantified variable to complete the sentence. This could be a pointer towards Quine's view of properties, as simply an intrinsic feature of predication about objects, with no separate identity.
###### 19. Language / B. Reference / 5. Speaker's Reference
 4972 I may regard a thought about Phosphorus as true, and the same thought about Hesperus as false
 Full Idea: From sameness of meaning there does not follow sameness of thought expressed. A fact about the Morning Star may express something different from a fact about the Evening Star, as someone may regard one as true and the other false. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.14) A reaction: This all gets clearer if we distinguish internalist and externalist theories of content. Why take sides on this? Why not just ask 'what is in the speaker's head?', 'what does the sentence mean in the community?', and 'what is the corresponding situation?'
###### 28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique
 8491 The Ontological Argument fallaciously treats existence as a first-level concept
 Full Idea: The ontological proof of God's existence suffers from the fallacy of treating existence as a first-level concept. From: Gottlob Frege (Function and Concept [1891], p.38 n) A reaction: [See Idea 8490 for first- and second-order functions] This is usually summarised as the idea that existence is a quantifier rather than a predicate.