### Ideas from 'Philosophy of Logic' by Willard Quine [1970], by Theme Structure

#### [found in 'Philosophy of Logic' by Quine,Willard [Prentice-Hall 1970,0-13-663625-x]].

green numbers give full details    |     back to texts     |     expand these ideas

###### 2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 3. Non-Contradiction
 9023 If you say that a contradiction is true, you change the meaning of 'not', and so change the subject
###### 3. Truth / F. Semantic Truth / 2. Semantic Truth
 9012 Talk of 'truth' when sentences are mentioned; it reminds us that reality is the point of sentences
###### 3. Truth / H. Deflationary Truth / 1. Redundant Truth
 9011 Truth is redundant for single sentences; we do better to simply speak the sentence
###### 4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 2. Tools of Propositional Logic / e. Axioms of PL
 9013 We can eliminate 'or' from our basic theory, by paraphrasing 'p or q' as 'not(not-p and not-q)'
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 1. Overview of Logic
 9020 My logical grammar has sentences by predication, then negation, conjunction, and existential quantification
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 3. Value of Logic
 9028 Maybe logical truth reflects reality, but in different ways in different languages
###### 5. Theory of Logic / A. Overview of Logic / 7. Second-Order Logic
 10014 Quine rejects second-order logic, saying that predicates refer to multiple objects [Hodes]
 10828 Quantifying over predicates is treating them as names of entities
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 2. Excluded Middle
 9024 Excluded middle has three different definitions
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 4. Identity in Logic
 10012 Quantification theory can still be proved complete if we add identity
###### 5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / f. Names eliminated
 9016 Names are not essential, because naming can be turned into predication
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 1. Quantification
 9015 Universal quantification is widespread, but it is definable in terms of existential quantification
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 4. Substitutional Quantification
 9025 You can't base quantification on substituting names for variables, if the irrationals cannot all be named
 9026 Some quantifications could be false substitutionally and true objectually, because of nameless objects
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 5. Second-Order Quantification
 10705 Putting a predicate letter in a quantifier is to make it the name of an entity
###### 5. Theory of Logic / I. Semantics of Logic / 3. Logical Truth
 9027 A sentence is logically true if all sentences with that grammatical structure are true
###### 8. Modes of Existence / B. Properties / 12. Denial of Properties
 9017 Predicates are not names; predicates are the other parties to predication
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 1. Physical Objects
 9018 A physical object is the four-dimensional material content of a portion of space-time
###### 9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 4. Four-Dimensionalism
 9019 Four-d objects helps predication of what no longer exists, and quantification over items from different times
###### 10. Modality / B. Possibility / 8. Conditionals / b. Types of conditional
 9014 Some conditionals can be explained just by negation and conjunction: not(p and not-q)
###### 19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 8. Synonymy
 9009 Single words are strongly synonymous if their interchange preserves truth
###### 19. Language / D. Propositions / 6. Propositions Critique
 9007 It makes no sense to say that two sentences express the same proposition
 9008 There is no rule for separating the information from other features of sentences
 9010 We can abandon propositions, and just talk of sentences and equivalence
###### 19. Language / F. Communication / 5. Pragmatics / a. Contextual meaning
 9021 A good way of explaining an expression is saying what conditions make its contexts true