more from Laura Schroeter

Single Idea 14703

[catalogued under 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity]

Full Idea

If we have a 'fixedly' operator F, then a sentence is fixedly actually true if it is true no matter which world is designated as actual (which 'he actually won in 2008' fails to be). Maybe '□' is superficial necessity, and FA is 'deep' necessity.


FA reads as 'Fixedly Actually'

Gist of Idea

Superficial necessity is true in all worlds; deep necessity is thus true, no matter which world is actual


Laura Schroeter (Two-Dimensional Semantics [2010], 1.2.2)

Book Reference

'Stanford Online Encyclopaedia of Philosophy', ed/tr. Stanford University [], p.11

A Reaction

Gareth Evans distinguishes 'deep' from 'superficial' necessity. Humberstone and others introduced 'F'. Presumably FA is deeper because it has to pass a tougher test.