more from Ernest Sosa

Single Idea 8876

[catalogued under 13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / e. Pro-foundations]

Full Idea

Much of our propositional knowledge is not easily formulable, as when a witness looking at a police lineup may know what the culprit's face looks like.

Gist of Idea

Much propositional knowledge cannot be formulated, as in recognising a face


Ernest Sosa (Beyond internal Foundations to external Virtues [2003], 6.1)

Book Reference

Bonjour,L/Sosa,E: 'Epistemic Justification' [Blackwells 2003], p.99

A Reaction

This is actually a very helpful defence of foundationalism, because it shows that we will accept perceptual experiences as knowledge when they are not expressed as explicit propositions. Davidson (Idea 8801), for example, must deal with this difficulty.

Related Idea

Idea 8801 Coherent justification says only beliefs can be reasons for holding other beliefs [Davidson]