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Ideas of Michael Walzer, by Text

[American, b.1935, At Harvard, and then the Institute of Advance Studies at Princeton.]

1977 Just and Unjust Wars
Pref p.-5 Deep ethical theory is very controversial, but we have to live with higher ethical practice
02 p.21 Jus ad bellum and Jus in bello are independent; unjust wars can be fought in a just way
04 p.52 Even non-violent intrusive acts between states count as aggression, if they justify resistance
04 p.58 If whole states possess rights, there can be social relations between states
04 p.72 The only good reason for fighting is in defence of rights
05 p.85 States can rightly pre-empt real and serious threats
06 p.90 Just wars are self-defence, or a rightful intercession in another's troubles
07 p.122 For moral reasons, a just war must be a limited war
08 p.127 The duties and moral status of loyal and obedient soldiers is the same in defence and aggression
08 p.129 We can't blame soldiers for anything they do which clearly promotes victory
08 p.136 Napoleon said 'I don't care about the deaths of a million men'
09 p.155 Double Effect needs a double intention - to achieve the good, and minimise the evil
11 p.182 Soldiers will only protect civilians if they feel safe from them
13 p.212 The aim of reprisals is to enforce the rules of war
13 p.218 Reprisal is defensible, as an alternative to war
13 p.221 States need not endure attacks passively, and successful reprisals are legitimate
14 p.229 Rejecting Combatant Equality allows just soldiers to be harsher, even to the extreme
17 p.274 With nuclear weapons we have a permanent supreme emergency (which is unstable)
17 p.276 What matters in war is unacceptable targets, not unacceptable weapons
17 p.281 Nuclear bombs are not for normal war; they undermine the 'just war', with a new morality
19 p.305 Kidnapped sailors and volunteers have different obligations to the passengers
19 p.309 Criminal responsibility can be fully assigned to each member of a group
Afterword p.333 If the oppressor is cruel, nonviolence is either surrender, or a mere gesture
Afterword p.335 We can only lead war towards peace if we firmly enforce the rules of war
1983 Spheres of Justice
p.74 Complex equality restricts equalities from spilling over, like money influencing politics and law [Tuckness/Wolf]
p.97 You can't distribute goods from behind a veil, because their social meaning is unclear [Tuckness/Wolf]
p.101 Equality is complex, with different spheres of equality where different principles apply [Swift]