green numbers give full details.     |    back to list of philosophers     |     expand these ideas

Ideas of Plato, by Text

[Greek, 428 - 347 BCE, Athenian pupil of Socrates. Founded Academy in Athens 385. Travelled to Italy and Sicily. Taught Aristotle. Died in Athens.]

400BCE Lysis
214d p.147 People say that friendship exists only between good men
216d p.150 The good is beautiful
398BCE Euthyphro
07e p.27 Do the gods also hold different opinions about what is right and honourable?
10a p.31 Is what is pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because they love it? (the 'Euthyphro Question')
10e p.31 It seems that the gods love things because they are pious, rather than making them pious by loving them
392BCE Hippias Major
297b p.255 What is fine is the parent of goodness
299a p.257 While sex is very pleasant, it should be in secret, as it looks contemptible
304e p.265 What is fine is always difficult
387BCE Gorgias
p.117 In "Gorgias" Socrates is confident that his 'elenchus' will decide moral truth [Vlastos]
451e p.11 The popular view is that health is first, good looks second, and honest wealth third
455a p.17 Rhetoric can produce conviction, but not educate people about right and wrong
462a p.28 We should test one another, by asking and answering questions
465a p.32 Rhetoric is irrational about its means and its ends
469c p.40 I would rather be a victim of crime than a criminal
472e p.46 A criminal is worse off if he avoids punishment
480a p.60 Should we avoid evil because it will bring us bad consequences?
483b p.65 Moral rules are made by the weak members of humanity
483c p.66 Do most people like equality because they are second-rate?
483d p.66 Does nature imply that it is right for better people to have greater benefits?
485d p.68 Is a gifted philosopher unmanly if he avoids the strife of the communal world?
491e p.79 Is it natural to simply indulge our selfish desires?
492a p.79 Do most people praise self-discipline and justice because they are too timid to gain their own pleasure?
492c p.79 Is the happiest state one of sensual, self-indulgent freedom?
492e p.80 If absence of desire is happiness, then nothing is happier than a stone or a corpse
493b p.80 In a fool's mind desire is like a leaky jar, insatiable in its desires, and order and contentment are better
494c p.82 If happiness is the satisfaction of desires, then a life of scratching itches should be happiness
497d p.88 In slaking our thirst the goodness of the action and the pleasure are clearly separate
498c p.90 Good and bad people seem to experience equal amounts of pleasure and pain
499e p.93 All activity aims at the good
500a p.93 Good should be the aim of pleasant activity, not the other way round
506e p.104 As with other things, a good state is organised and orderly
507c p.105 A good person is bound to act well, and this brings happiness
507e p.106 Self-indulgent desire makes friendship impossible, because it makes a person incapable of co-operation
517b p.120 A good citizen won't be passive, but will redirect the needs of the state
385BCE Meno
70a p.115 Is virtue taught, or achieved by practice, or a natural aptitude, or what?
72c p.117 Even if virtues are many and various, they must have something in common to make them virtues
79c p.127 How can you know part of virtue without knowing the whole?
80d05 p.880 How can you seek knowledge of something if you don't know it?
80e p.128 You don't need to learn what you know, and how do you seek for what you don't know?
81d p.880 Seeking and learning are just recollection
85d p.886 The slave boy learns geometry from questioning, not teaching, so it is recollection
87c p.141 If virtue is a type of knowledge then it ought to be taught
88c p.142 Spiritual qualities only become advantageous with the growth of wisdom
97b p.153 As a guide to action, true opinion is as good as knowledge
98a3 p.895 True opinions only become really valuable when they are tied down by reasons
99e p.156 It seems that virtue is neither natural nor taught, but is a divine gift
384BCE The Symposium
180b p.45 Love assists men in achieving merit and happiness
184c p.51 The only slavery which is not dishonourable is slavery to excellence
187c p.55 Music is a knowledge of love in the realm of harmony and rhythm
201a p.78 Love of ugliness is impossible
201c p.78 Beauty and goodness are the same
202a p.80 True opinion without reason is midway between wisdom and ignorance
202c p.80 Happiness is secure enjoyment of what is good and beautiful
204a p.82 Gods are not lovers of wisdom, because they are already wise
204b p.83 Love follows beauty, wisdom is exceptionally beautiful, so love follows wisdom
205a p.84 If a person is good they will automatically become happy
206a p.86 Love is desire for perpetual possession of the good
206d p.489 Beauty is harmony with what is divine, and ugliness is lack of such harmony
207d p.88 We call a person the same throughout life, but all their attributes change
208b p.89 Only the gods stay unchanged; we replace our losses with similar acquisitions
209a p.90 The finest branch of wisdom is justice and moderation in ordering states and families
210a p.92 The first step on the right path is the contemplation of physical beauty when young
210a4- p.199 Diotima said the Forms are the objects of desire in philosophical discourse [Roochnik]
210b p.92 Stage two is the realisation that beauty of soul is of more value than beauty of body
211c p.94 Progress goes from physical beauty, to moral beauty, to the beauty of knowledge, and reaches absolute beauty
383BCE The Apology
38a p.125 If goodness needs true opinion but not knowledge, you can skip the 'examined life' [Vlastos]
382BCE Phaedo
058a p.50 The ship which Theseus took to Crete is now sent to Delos crowned with flowers
065c p.109 In investigation the body leads us astray, but the soul gets a clear view of the facts
066c p.111 To achieve pure knowledge, we must get rid of the body and contemplate things with the soul
066c p.111 War aims at the acquisition of wealth, because we are enslaved to the body
069b p.115 Wisdom makes virtue and true goodness possible
073a p.121 People are obviously recollecting when they react to a geometrical diagram
074e p.124 If we feel the inadequacy of a resemblance, we must recollect the original
075a p.124 We must have a prior knowledge of equality, if we see 'equal' things and realise they fall short of it
084c p.136 It is a mistake to think that the most violent pleasure or pain is therefore the truest reality
089d p.144 The greatest misfortune for a person is to develop a dislike for argument
092d p.148 Whether the soul pre-exists our body depends on whether it contains the ultimate standard of reality
093b p.149 One soul can't be more or less of a soul than another
097a p.153 Do we think and experience with blood, air or fire, or could it be our brain?
097d p.84 To investigate the causes of things, study what is best for them
097d p.154 If you add one to one, which one becomes two, or do they both become two?
099c p.157 Fancy being unable to distinguish a cause from its necessary background conditions!
100c p.159 There is only one source for all beauty
102a p.161 Other things are named after the Forms because they participate in them
102b-c p.88 If Simmias is taller than Socrates, that isn't a feature that is just in Simmias
108e p.171 If the Earth is spherical and in the centre, it is kept in place by universal symmetry, not by force
114b p.178 Philosophy is a purification of the soul ready for the afterlife
381BCE Laches
188b p.96 Don't assume that wisdom is the automatic consequence of old age
197b p.109 Being unafraid (perhaps through ignorance) and being brave are two different things
380BCE Protagoras
320b p.51 Socrates did not believe that virtue could be taught
324c p.56 If we punish wrong-doers, it shows that we believe virtue can be taught
330c p.62 If asked whether justice itself is just or unjust, you would have to say that it is just
331d p.64 Everything resembles everything else up to a point
332c p.65 Only one thing can be contrary to something
333e p.67 Some things are good even though they are not beneficial to men
345b p.776 The only real evil is loss of knowledge
351d p.88 Some pleasures are not good, and some pains are not evil
352d p.782 The most important things in life are wisdom and knowledge
354a p.90 People tend only to disapprove of pleasure if it leads to pain, or prevents future pleasure
358d p.95 No one willingly and knowingly embraces evil
360d p.98 Courage is knowing what should or shouldn't be feared
361b p.99 Socrates is contradicting himself in claiming virtue can't be taught, but that it is knowledge
379BCE Euthydemus
289b p.726 Knowing how to achieve immortality is pointless without the knowledge how to use immortality
292b p.349 Only knowledge of some sort is good
293a p.351 What knowledge is required to live well?
294c p.353 Say how many teeth the other has, then count them. If you are right, we will trust your other claims
301a p.366 Beautiful things must be different from beauty itself, but beauty itself must be present in each of them
306a p.374 Something which lies midway between two evils is better than either of them
377BCE Cratylus
385b p.105 Truths say of what is that it is, falsehoods say of what is that it is not
385e p.103 Is the being or essence of each thing private to each person?
386d p.104 Things don't have every attribute, and essence isn't private, so each thing has an essence
387a p.104 We only succeed in cutting if we use appropriate tools, not if we approach it randomly
388a p.106 A name is a sort of tool
390c p.109 A dialectician is someone who knows how to ask and to answer questions
393b p.112 The natural offspring of a lion is called a 'lion' (but what about the offspring of a king?)
398b p.116 Good people are no different from wise ones
399d p.118 Soul causes the body to live, and gives it power to breathe and to be revitalized
406c p.124 Even the gods love play
415d p.133 'Arete' signifies lack of complexity and a free-flowing soul
416d p.134 Wisdom is called 'beautiful', because it performs fine works
423e p.140 Doesn't each thing have an essence, just as it has other qualities?
432c p.148 If we made a perfect duplicate of Cratylus, there would be two Cratyluses
435d p.151 Anyone who knows a thing's name also knows the thing
436c p.152 A name-giver might misname something, then force other names to conform to it
438b p.153 Things must be known before they are named, so it can't be the names that give us knowledge
439e p.155 How can beauty have identity if it changes?
440a p.155 There can't be any knowledge if things are constantly changing
375BCE works
p.8 The greatest discovery in human thought is Plato's discovery of abstract objects [Brown,JR]
p.16 Only universals have essence [Politis]
p.16 Plato and Aristotle take essence to make a thing what it is [Politis]
p.34 A Form is a cause of things only in the way that white mixed with white is a cause [Aristotle]
p.34 If there is one Form for both the Form and its participants, they must have something in common [Aristotle]
p.43 As religion and convention collapsed, Plato sought morals not just in knowledge, but in the soul [Williams,B]
p.57 Plato's legacy to European thought was the Good, the Beautiful and the True [Gray]
p.58 A good explanation totally rules out the opposite explanation (so Forms are required) [Ruben]
p.62 If gods are like men, they are just eternal men; similarly, Forms must differ from particulars [Aristotle]
p.64 The Forms cannot be changeless if they are in changing things [Aristotle]
p.81 Plato's whole philosophy may be based on being duped by reification - a figure of speech [Benardete,JA]
p.96 Plato says wholes are either containers, or they're atomic, or they don't exist [Koslicki]
p.98 Plato's idea of 'structure' tends to be mathematically expressed [Koslicki]
p.98 Plato sees an object's structure as expressible in mathematics [Koslicki]
p.100 We can grasp whole things in science, because they have a mathematics and a teleology [Koslicki]
p.103 Platonists argue for the indivisible triangle-in-itself [Aristotle]
p.106 Plato is boring [Nietzsche]
p.117 Plato decided that the virtuous and happy life was the philosophical life [Nehamas]
p.118 Plato's Forms meant that the sophists only taught the appearance of wisdom and virtue [Nehamas]
p.120 Plato was less concerned than Aristotle with the source of unity in a complex object [Koslicki]
p.171 Plato's holds that there are three substances: Forms, mathematical entities, and perceptible bodies [Aristotle]
p.175 Almost everyone except Plato thinks that time could not have been generated [Aristotle]
p.276 Plato never refers to examining the conscience [Foucault]
p.314 Pleasure is better with the addition of intelligence, so pleasure is not the good [Aristotle]
p.336 When Diogenes said he could only see objects but not their forms, Plato said it was because he had eyes but no intellect [Diog. Laertius]
p.393 Plato never mentions Democritus, and wished to burn his books [Diog. Laertius]
p.405 Plato, unusually, said that theoretical and practical wisdom are inseparable [Kraut]
374BCE The Republic
p.25 Plato's reality has unchanging Parmenidean forms, and Heraclitean flux [Fogelin]
p.27 Plato found that he could only enforce rational moral justification by creating an authoritarian society [Williams,B]
p.63 Plato's Forms are said to have no location in space [Aristotle]
p.79 The 'Republic' is a great work of rhetorical theory [Lawson-Tancred]
p.82 If Plato's God is immaterial, he will lack consciousness, wisdom, pleasure and movement, which are essential to him [Cicero]
p.82 Forms are not universals, as they don't cover every general term [Annas]
p.91 The good cannot be expressed in words, but imprints itself upon the soul [Celsus]
p.110 Plato mistakenly thought forms were totally abstracted away from matter [Bacon]
p.395 Plato's Forms not only do not come from the senses, but they are beyond possibility of sensing [Kant]
331c p.8 Surely you don't return a borrowed weapon to a mad friend?
332d p.10 Simonides said morality is helping one's friends and harming one's enemies
338c p.18 Justice is merely the interests of the stronger party
339a p.19 Is right just the interests of the powerful?
339b p.345 Psychic conflict is clear if appetite is close to the body and reason fairly separate [Modrak]
350e p.37 You must never go against what you actually believe
353a p.40 A thing's function is what it alone can do, or what it does better than other things
353b p.41 If something has a function then it has a state of being good
353d p.41 Is the function of the mind management, authority and planning - or is it one's whole way of life?
359a p.46 Morality is a compromise, showing restraint, to avoid suffering wrong without compensation
359a p.46 After a taste of mutual harm, men make a legal contract to avoid it
360c p.48 If we were invisible, would the just man become like the unjust?
363d p.51 Is the supreme reward for virtue to be drunk for eternity?
365b p.53 Isn't it better to have a reputation for goodness than to actually be good?
365d p.54 If the gods are non-existent or indifferent, why bother to deceive them?
365e p.54 Sin first, then sacrifice to the gods from the proceeds
366c p.55 We avoid evil either through a natural aversion, or because we have acquired knowledge
369b p.117 People need society because the individual has too many needs
369c p.118 All exchanges in a community are for mutual benefit
379c p.74 God is responsible for the good things, but we must look elsewhere for the cause of the bad things
380e p.1019 The best things (gods, healthy bodies, good souls) are least liable to change
402e p.101 Excessive pleasure deranges people, making the other virtues impossible
427e p.133 A good community necessarily has wisdom, courage, self-discipline and morality
433d p.1065 People doing their jobs properly is the fourth cardinal virtue for a city
439b p.149 The mind has parts, because we have inner conflicts
439b p.212 The soul seems to have an infinity of parts [Aristotle]
441a p.152 There is a third element to the mind - spirit - lying between reason and appetite
441d p.1073 If the parts of our soul do their correct work, we will be just people, and will act justly
444e p.157 Goodness is mental health, badness is mental sickness
454a p.165 People often merely practice eristic instead of dialectic, because they don't analyse the subject-matter
456e p.169 Is there anything better for a community than to produce excellent people?
473d p.193 Only rule by philosophers of integrity can keep a community healthy
479e p.202 Knowledge must be of the permanent unchanging nature of things
485d p.205 Philosophers are concerned with totally non-physical pleasures
486d p.206 Truth is closely related to proportion
500d p.224 Philosophers become as divine and orderly as possible, by studying divinity and order
505a p.230 The main aim is to understand goodness, which gives everything its value and advantage
505b p.230 Pleasure is commonly thought to be the good, though the more ingenious prefer knowledge
505c p.231 Even people who think pleasure is the good admit that there are bad pleasures
505d p.70 For Plato we abandon honour and pleasure once we see the Good [Taylor,C]
505d p.231 Every person, and every activity, aims at the good
506c p.232 True belief without knowledge is like blind people on the right road
506e p.233 I suggest that we forget about trying to define goodness itself for the time being
507b p.233 The plurality of beautiful things must belong to a single class, because they have a single particular character
508c p.235 Good has the same role in the world of knowledge as the sun has in the physical world
508e p.236 Goodness makes truth and knowledge possible
509b p.1130 Being depends on the Good, which is not itself being, but superior to being
510c p.238 In mathematics certain things have to be accepted without further explanation
517c p.244 The sight of goodness leads to all that is fine and true and right
518c p.245 To gain knowledge, turn away from the world of change, and focus on true goodness
518d p.308 Plato measured the degree of reality by the degree of value [Nietzsche]
520d p.248 Reluctant rulers make a better and more unified administration
525a p.1141 The same thing is both one and an unlimited number at the same time
525b p.1142 To become rational, philosophers must rise from becoming into being
525d p.1142 We aim for elevated discussion of pure numbers, not attaching them to physical objects
526a p.1142 In pure numbers, all ones are equal, with no internal parts
527a p.258 Geometry is not an activity, but the study of unchanging knowledge
527b p.258 Geometry can lead the mind upwards to truth and philosophy
533c p.266 Dialectic is the only method of inquiry which uproots the things which it takes for granted
534e p.268 Dialectic is the highest and most important part of the curriculum
536e p.271 Compulsory intellectual work never remains in the mind
537c p.271 The ability to take an overview is the distinguishing mark of a dialectician
537d p.92 For Plato, rationality is a vision of and love of a cosmic rational order [Taylor,C]
554e p.292 True goodness requires mental unity and harmony
577e p.20 For Plato and Aristotle there is no will; there is only rational desire for what is seen as good [Frede,M]
580d p.326 There are three types of pleasure, for reason, for spirit and for appetite
584b p.332 Nice smells are intensive, have no preceding pain, and no bad after-effect
586b p.335 Pleasure-seekers desperately seek illusory satisfaction, like filling a leaky vessel
596a p.345 A Form applies to a set of particular things with the same name
596b p.345 Craftsmen making furniture refer to the form, but no one manufactures the form of furniture
601a p.1205 Without the surface decoration, poetry shows only appearances and nothing of what is real
602c p.354 Representation is two steps removed from the truth
603a p.355 If theory and practice conflict, the best part of the mind accepts theory, so the other part is of lower grade
605b p.358 Artists should be excluded from a law-abiding community, because they destroy the rational mind
608e p.364 Bad is always destructive, where good preserves and benefits
611b p.367 Something is unlikely to be immortal if it is imperfectly made from diverse parts
612b p.368 We should behave well even if invisible, for the health of the mind
613b p.370 Clever criminals do well at first, but not in the long run
Ch.9 p.70 For Plato, virtue is its own reward [Lawson-Tancred]
372BCE Clitophon
410b p.101 The just man does not harm his enemies, but benefits everyone
368BCE Theaetetus
152c p.31 Perception is infallible, suggesting that it is knowledge
158b p.42 What evidence can be brought to show whether we are dreaming or not?
167a p.57 It is impossible to believe something which is held to be false
167e p.58 Eristic discussion is aggressive, but dialectic aims to help one's companions in discussion
171a p.64 If you claim that all beliefs are true, that includes beliefs opposed to your own
171e p.65 Clearly some people are superior to others when it comes to medicine
172d p.67 Philosophers are always switching direction to something more interesting
176a p.72 There must always be some force of evil ranged against good
176c p.73 God must be the epitome of goodness, and we can only approach a divine state by being as good as possible
178c p.76 How can a relativist form opinions about what will happen in the future?
181d p.81 There seem to be two sorts of change: alteration and motion
184d p.86 Our senses could have been separate, but they converge on one mind
185d p.88 With what physical faculty do we perceive pairs of opposed abstract qualities?
186c p.90 Thought must grasp being itself before truth becomes possible
189a p.95 How can a belief exist if its object doesn't exist?
195e p.106 You might mistake eleven for twelve in your senses, but not in your mind
198b p.219 We master arithmetic by knowing all the numbers in our soul
201d p.115 Things are only knowable if a rational account (logos) is possible
201e p.116 Maybe primary elements can be named, but not receive a rational account
202b p.116 A rational account is essentially a weaving together of things with names
202b01-3 p.223 A primary element has only a name, and no logos, but complexes have an account, by weaving the names
204e p.227 The whole can't be the parts, because it would be all of the parts, which is the whole
205a p.227 A sum is that from which nothing is lacking, which is a whole
205b p.121 Either a syllable is its letters (making parts as knowable as whole) or it isn't (meaning it has no parts)
205d p.122 If a word has no parts and has a single identity, it turns out to be the same kind of thing as a letter
205e p.123 Parts and wholes are either equally knowable or equally unknowable
206b p.123 Understanding mainly involves knowing the elements, not their combinations
206d p.124 A rational account might be seeing an image of one's belief, like a reflection in a mirror
207b p.125 A rational account of a wagon would mean knowledge of its hundred parts
207c p.230 Expertise is knowledge of the whole by means of the parts
208b p.126 An inadequate rational account would still not justify knowledge
208c p.127 A rational account involves giving an image, or analysis, or giving a differentiating mark
209b p.128 Without distinguishing marks, how do I know what my beliefs are about?
366BCE Phaedrus
237d p.36 The two ruling human principles are the natural desire for pleasure, and an acquired love of virtue
237e p.37 Reason impels us towards excellence, which teaches us self-control
245c p.49 Soul is always in motion, so it must be self-moving and immortal
245d p.49 If the prime origin is destroyed, it will not come into being again out of anything
245e p.49 The soul is self-motion
246d p.51 There isn't a single reason for positing the existence of immortal beings
246d p.51 We cannot conceive of God, so we have to think of Him as an immortal version of ourselves
247c p.52 True knowledge is of the reality behind sense experience
247d p.52 The mind of God is fully satisfied and happy with a vision of reality and truth
249b p.55 It takes a person to understand, by using universals, and by using reason to create a unity out of sense-impressions
250d p.57 We would have an overpowering love of knowledge if we had a pure idea of it - as with the other Forms
250e p.57 Beauty is the clearest and most lovely of the Forms
255b p.63 Bad people are never really friends with one another
258e p.69 Most pleasure is release from pain, and is therefore not worthwhile
259e p.71 An excellent speech seems to imply a knowledge of the truth in the mind of the speaker
261a p.73 Only a good philosopher can be a good speaker
265d p.82 Reasoning needs to cut nature accurately at the joints
266b p.82 The highest ability in man is the ability to discuss unity and plurality in the nature of things
266b p.543 I revere anyone who can discern a single thing that encompasses many things
270c p.89 Can we understand an individual soul without knowing the soul in general?
272e p.93 If the apparent facts strongly conflict with probability, it is in everyone's interests to suppress the facts
277b p.100 A speaker should be able to divide a subject, right down to the limits of divisibility
Ch.10 p.85 'Phaedrus' pioneers the notion of philosophical rhetoric [Lawson-Tancred]
364BCE Parmenides
p.27 Plato moves from Forms to a theory of genera and principles in his later work [Frede,M]
p.28 Plato found antinomies in ideas, Kant in space and time, and Bradley in relations [Ryle]
p.44 Plato's 'Parmenides' is the greatest artistic achievement of the ancient dialectic [Hegel]
p.105 In Parmenides, if composition is identity, a whole is nothing more than its parts [Harte,V]
p.355 Plato's 'Parmenides' is perhaps the best collection of antinomies ever made [Russell]
p.357 Plato's Parmenides has a three-part theory, of Primal One, a One-Many, and a One-and-Many [Plotinus]
130d p.211 It would be absurd to think there were abstract Forms for vile things like hair, mud and dirt
130d p.213 If admirable things have Forms, maybe everything else does as well
131a p.213 The whole idea of each Form must be found in each thing which participates in it
131b p.215 Each idea is in all its participants at once, just as daytime is a unity but in many separate places at once
132a p.217 If absolute greatness and great things are seen as the same, another thing appears which makes them seem great
132c p.219 If things partake of ideas, this implies either that everything thinks, or that everything actually is thought
132e p.221 If things are made alike by participating in something, that thing will be the absolute idea
133a p.221 Participation is not by means of similarity, so we are looking for some other method of participation
133a p.221 Nothing can be like an absolute idea, because a third idea intervenes to make them alike (leading to a regress)
133c p.223 If absolute ideas existed in us, they would cease to be absolute
133e p.225 The concept of a master includes the concept of a slave
134c p.227 Absolute ideas, such as the Good and the Beautiful, cannot be known by us
135a p.227 Only a great person can understand the essence of things, and an even greater person can teach it
135c p.229 If you deny that each thing always stays the same, you destroy the possibility of discussion
135e p.231 When questions are doubtful we should concentrate not on objects but on ideas of the intellect
137c09 p.95 It seems that the One must be composed of parts, which contradicts its being one
137e p.237 The unlimited has no shape and is endless
138b p.372 The only movement possible for the One is in space or in alteration
144a p.377 One is, so numbers exist, so endless numbers exist, and each one must partake of being
146b p.379 Two things relate either as same or different, or part of a whole, or the whole of the part
147d p.269 You must always mean the same thing when you utter the same name
149e p.277 Greatness and smallness must exist, to be opposed to one another, and come into being in things
155d p.295 The one was and is and will be and was becoming and is becoming and will become
157c p.123 Plato says only a one has parts, and a many does not [Harte,V]
157c p.301 Everything partakes of the One in some way
157c p.389 Anything which has parts must be one thing, and parts are of a one, not of a many
157d p.389 Parts must belong to a created thing with a distinct form
159a p.307 Opposites are as unlike as possible
159d p.309 Some things do not partake of the One
160d p.313 We couldn't discuss the non-existence of the One without knowledge of it
359BCE The Sophist
228b p.17 Wickedness is an illness of the soul
228d p.18 A soul without understanding is ugly
230a p.20 Didactic education is hard work and achieves little
230b p.250 In discussion a person's opinions are shown to be in conflict, leading to calm self-criticism
237c p.257 What does 'that which is not' refer to?
246b p.39 Some alarming thinkers think that only things which you can touch exist
247e p.269 To be is to have a capacity, to act on other things, or to receive actions
249c p.43 We must fight fiercely for knowledge, understanding and intelligence
250d p.45 If statements about non-existence are logically puzzling, so are statements about existence
253d p.49 Good analysis involves dividing things into appropriate forms without confusion
253d p.276 Good thinkers spot forms spread through things, or included within some larger form
253e p.49 Dialectic should only be taught to those who already philosophise well
257d p.281 The not-beautiful is part of the beautiful, though opposed to it, and is just as real
259e p.57 The desire to split everything into its parts is unpleasant and unphilosophical
259e p.283 If we see everything as separate, we can then give no account of it
262e p.286 Whenever there's speech it has to be about something
356BCE The Statesman
264e p.289 To reveal a nature, divide down, and strip away what it has in common with other things
269b p.18 Only divine things can always stay the same, and bodies are not like that
273b p.23 The soul gets its goodness from god, and its evil from previous existence.
284b p.35 The arts produce good and beautiful things by preserving the mean
285b p.328 Whenever you perceive a community of things, you should also hunt out differences in the group
285d p.329 No one wants to define 'weaving' just for the sake of weaving
286a p.37 Non-physical beauty can only be shown clearly by speech
302e p.85 Democracy is the worst of good constitutions, but the best of bad constitutions [Aristotle]
304c p.58 The question of whether or not to persuade comes before the science of persuasion
353BCE Philebus
11b p.51 Reason, memory, truth and wisdom are far better than pleasure, for those who can attain them
13b p.54 Pleasure is certainly very pleasant, but it doesn't follow that all pleasures are good
14e p.57 If one object is divided into its parts, someone can then say that one are many and many is one
14e p.402 It seems absurd that seeing a person's limbs, the one is many, and yet the many are one
15a p.403 If the good is one, is it unchanged when it is in particulars, and is it then separated from itself?
15d p.403 A thing can become one or many, depending on how we talk about it
20e p.67 Would you prefer a life of pleasure without reason, or one of reason without pleasure?
21a p.67 If you lived a life of maximum pleasure, would you still be lacking anything?
21c p.68 A life of pure pleasure with no intellect is the life of a jellyfish
22b p.69 The good must be sufficient and perfect, and neither intellect nor pleasure are that
31d p.86 We feel pleasure when we approach our natural state of harmony
33b p.88 It is unlikely that the gods feel either pleasure or pain
42c p.106 Some of the pleasures and pains we feel are false
45e p.112 Intense pleasure and pain are not felt in a good body, but in a worthless one
53b p.124 A small pure pleasure is much finer than a large one contaminated with pain
55b p.128 Hedonists must say that someone in pain is bad, even if they are virtuous
56d p.446 Daily arithmetic counts unequal things, but pure arithmetic equalises them
59b p.135 How can you be certain about aspects of the world if they aren't constant?
62a p.451 It is absurd to define a circle, but not be able to recognise a real one
64d p.454 If a mixture does not contain measure and proportion, it is corrupted and destroyed
64e p.145 If goodness involves moderation and proportion, then it seems to be found in beauty
64e p.454 Any mixture which lacks measure and proportion doesn't even count as a mixture at all
65a p.145 The good involves beauty, proportion and truth
67a p.149 Neither intellect nor pleasure are the good, because they are not perfect and self-sufficient
67a p.149 Good first, then beauty, then reason, then knowledge, then pleasure [PG]
352BCE Letter Seven
334 p.127 To understand morality requires a soul
349BCE Timaeus
p.81 Plato's Forms were seen as part of physics, rather than of metaphysics [Annas]
p.223 Plato says the soul is ordered by number [Plutarch]
28a p.40 Nothing can come to be without a cause
28a p.1234 The apprehensions of reason remain unchanging, but reasonless sensation shows mere becoming
28b p.40 Something will always be well-made if the maker keeps in mind the eternal underlying pattern
28d p.41 If the cosmos is an object of perception then it must be continually changing
29a p.41 Clearly the world is good, so its maker must have been concerned with the eternal, not with change
29e p.42 The creator of the cosmos had no envy, and so wanted things to be as like himself as possible
31c p.43 The cosmos must be unique, because it resembles the creator, who is unique
38c p.52 Time came into existence with the heavens, so that there will be a time when they can be dissolved
47a p.65 Heavenly movements gave us the idea of time, and caused us to inquire about the heavens
47b p.65 Philosophy is the supreme gift of the gods to mortals
47d p.65 Music has harmony like the soul, and serves to reorder disharmony within us
48e p.67 The universe is basically an intelligible and unchanging model, and a visible and changing copy of it
49b p.67 In addition to the underlying unchanging model and a changing copy of it, there must also be a foundation of all change
51d p.71 For knowledge and true opinion to be different there must be Forms; otherwise we are just stuck with sensations
51e p.71 Intelligence is the result of rational teaching; true opinion can result from irrational persuasion
52d p.72 Before the existence of the world there must have been being, space and becoming
56c p.79 We must consider the four basic shapes as too small to see, only becoming visible in large numbers
59c p.84 For relaxation one can consider the world of change, instead of eternal things
68e p.96 There are two types of cause, the necessary and the divine
81e p.111 Everything that takes place naturally is pleasant
86e p.117 No one wants to be bad, but bad men result from physical and educational failures, which they do not want or choose
87b p.118 Bad governments prevent discussion, and discourage the study of virtue
88c p.118 One should exercise both the mind and the body, to avoid imbalance
91d p.123 Only bird-brained people think astronomy is entirely a matter of evidence
348BCE The Laws
p.55 In 'The Laws', to obey the law is to be obey god [MacIntyre]
631a p.54 Virtue is the aim of all laws
631b p.55 Sound laws achieve the happiness of those who observe them
643c p.72 Children's games should channel their pleasures into adult activity
643e p.73 Education in virtue produces citizens who are active but obedient
653b p.1344 Education is channelling a child's feelings into the right course before it understands why
653c p.1344 Virtue is a concord of reason and emotion, with pleasure and pain trained to correct ends
662c p.99 It would be strange if the gods rewarded those who experienced the most pleasure in life
667a p.106 We ought to follow where the argument leads us
667b p.100 We shouldn't always follow where the argument leads! [Lewis]
679b p.122 The best people are produced where there is no excess of wealth or poverty
689b p.136 It is foolish to quarrel with the mind's own reasoning processes
697d p.149 Totalitarian states destroy friendships and community spirit
718e p.179 A serious desire for moral excellence is very rare indeed
727e p.190 People who value beauty above virtue insult the soul by placing the body above it
729c p.193 The best way to educate the young is not to rebuke them, but to set a good example
730c p.194 Truth has the supreme value, for both gods and men
731e p.196 Every crime is the result of excessive self-love
732c p.197 Excessive laughter and tears must be avoided
742e p.212 Virtue and great wealth are incompatible
747a p.218 Mathematics has the widest application of any subject on the curriculum
757a p.229 Friendship is impossible between master and slave, even if they are made equal
757d p.230 Justice is granting the equality which unequals deserve
765e p.241 Control of education is the key office of state, and should go to the best citizen
802a p.289 Men and women should qualify equally for honours on merit
807c p.297 The only worthwhile life is one devoted to physical and moral perfection
840c p.339 The conquest of pleasure is the noblest victory of all
862b p.371 An action is only just if it is performed by someone with a just character and outlook
863e p.374 Injustice is the mastery of the soul by bad feelings, even if they do not lead to harm
877a p.397 Attempted murder is like real murder, but we should respect the luck which avoided total ruin
894d p.1551 Self-generating motion is clearly superior to all other kinds of motion
895a p.424 Movement is transmitted through everything, and it must have started with self-generated motion
895a p.1551 The only possible beginning for the endless motions of reality is something self-generated
895d p.1552 To grasp a thing we need its name, its definition, and what it really is
896a p.1552 Soul is what is defined by 'self-generating motion'
896b p.1553 Self-moving soul has to be the oldest thing there is
896d p.427 Soul must be the cause of all the opposites, such as good and evil or beauty and ugliness
896e p.1553 There must be at least two souls controlling the cosmos, one doing good, the other the opposite
897c p.1554 If all the motions of nature reflect calculations of reason, then the best kind of soul must direct it
897d p.1554 Mortals are incapable of being fully rational
899b p.1556 The heavens must be full of gods, controlling nature either externally or from within
903c p.437 Creation is not for you; you exist for the sake of creation
959a p.512 My individuality is my soul, which carries my body around
965d p.525 The Guardians must aim to discover the common element in the four cardinal virtues
967a p.527 If astronomical movements are seen as necessary instead of by divine will, this leads to atheism